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A prominent theory states that animal phenotypes arise by evolutionary changes in gene regulation, but the extent to which this theory holds true for behavioral evolution is not known. Because "nature and nurture" are now understood to involve hereditary and environmental influences on gene expression, we studied whether environmental influences on a(More)
A study was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect colony-level stinging behavior and individual body size of honey bees. An F1 queen was produced from a cross between a queen of European origin and a drone descended from an African subspecies. Haploid drones from the hybrid queen were individually backcrossed to sister European(More)
One key advantage of eusociality is shared defense of the nest, brood, and stored food; nest defense plays an important role in the biology of eusocial bees. Recent studies on honey bees, Apis mellifera, have focused on the placement of defensive activity in the overall scheme of division of labor, showing that guard bees play a unique and important role in(More)
The honeybee has been the most important insect species for study of social behavior. The recently released draft genomic sequence for the bee will accelerate honeybee behavioral genetics. Although we lack sufficient tools to manipulate this genome easily, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that influence natural variation in behavior have been identified and(More)
The defensive behavior of 52 hybrid honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies from four sets of crosses was studied and compared with that of European and Africanized bee colonies. Colonies containing F(1) hybrid workers were obtained through reciprocal crosses between European and Africanized bees. The total number of stings deposited by workers in a moving(More)
We analyzed the alarm pheromone components from five colonies of Africanized honeybees and three colonies of European honeybees collected in Mexico. Analyses revealed a novel alarm pheromone component that was only present in appreciable quantities in the Africanized bee samples. Analysis of the mass spectrum and subsequent synthesis confirmed that this(More)
The stinging and guarding components of the defensive behavior of European, Africanized, hybrid, and backcross honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) were compared and analyzed at both colony and individual levels. Hybrid and Africanized backcross colonies stung as many times as Africanized ones. European backcross colonies stung more than European bees but not as(More)
This study was conducted to analyze the stinging response thresholds of individual European and Africanized worker honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) to electrical stimulation. Newly emerged workers were identified, and either were placed into an incubator, into their natal colonies, or cross-fostered in common colonies of European or Africanized ancestry. Nest(More)
A conspicuous feature of honey bee social biology is the division of labour between reproductive queens and functionally sterile workers. However, the sterility of workers is conditional and sensitive to genetic and environmental context. Despite this understanding, we do not yet know how effective differences in genotype versus differences in colony(More)
We have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for a European honey bee strain using the cloning enzyme HindIII in order to develop resources for structural genomics research. The library contains 36,864 clones (ninety-six 384-well plates). A random sampling of 247 clones indicated an average insert size of 113 kb (range = 27 to 213 kb)(More)