Ernesto Gramsch

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Daily particle samples were collected in Santiago, Chile, at four urban locations from January 1, 1989, through December 31, 2001. Both fine PM with da < 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and coarse PM with 2.5 < da < 10 microm (PM2.5-10) were collected using dichotomous samplers. The inhalable particle fraction, PM10, was determined as the sum of fine and coarse(More)
We have designed and built a compact, low-cost automated system to measure the optical absorption coefficient of air. Because most of the light absorption is due to black carbon, this method is a direct measure of the amount of black carbon in the atmosphere. The equipment was used to measure absorption over a period of one year in a central area of(More)
Das Programm für Nationale VersorgungsLeitlinien (NVL-Programm) ist eine Initia tive zur Förderung von Qualität und Transparenz in der strukturierten medizinischen Versorgung (Disease Management und Integrierte Versorgung). Das Programm wird seit 2003 gemeinsam von der Bundes ärztekammer (BÄK), der Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen(More)
The optical absorption coefficient, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microm, and elemental carbon (EC) have been measured simultaneously during winter and spring of 2000 in the western part of Santiago, Chile (Pudahuel district). The optical measurements were carried out with a low-cost instrument recently developed at the University of(More)
The charge-collection efficiency of beveled-edge-type silicon avalanche photodiodes has been determined for soft x rays in the 50-300-eV range. An efficiency of greater than 80% is measured for energies below the Si L absorption edge. The measured efficiency is well described by a model that accounts for absorption in an oxide overlayer and recombination at(More)
Santiago de Chile is one of the most polluted South American cities, concentrating its pollution episodes during winter. Daily PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) concentrations over 80 microg/m3 have been reached frequently since 1998. Despite several regulations introduced over the past 20 yr to improve the air(More)
Santiago, Chile, is one of the most polluted cities in South America. As a response, over the past 15 yr, numerous pollution reduction programs have been implemented by the environmental authority, Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente. This paper assesses the effectiveness of these interventions by examining the trends of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5))(More)
The size distribution of particles has been studied in three sites in the Metropolitan area of Santiago de Chile in the winter of 2009 and a comparison with black carbon was performed. Two sites are located near busy streets in Santiago and the other site is located in a rural area about 40 km west of Santiago with little influence from vehicles, but large(More)
Since the release of the report "To Err is Human" by the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) the subject "Medical Risks, Errors and Patient Safety" has gained increasing interest in literature. In Germany, neither extensive statistics nor generally significant epidemiological studies regarding common errors associated with damages caused to patients'(More)
Bioethanol for use in vehicles is becoming a substantial part of global energy infrastructure because it is renewable and some emissions are reduced. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and total hydrocarbons (THC) are reduced but there is still controversy regarding emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), aldehydes and ethanol, this may be a concern because all(More)