Ernesto Calvo

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Responsibility is not a choice but a burden. That is the basic intuition that we will put forward in this book. Why would parties embrace a policy that is not preferred by a majority of voters and surrender the electoral chances of their candidates? Electorally unsuccessful but responsible parties, it is said, cultivate brand names today by promising(More)
Infrastructure and utilities underpin economic growth and human development. Many developing countries privatized in these sectors during the 1990s, but their weak institutional environments make them prone to crises that generate incentives for governments to renege on their original contractual commitments to investors. The existent literature shows that(More)
This paper examines how the adoption of the Australian ballot (AB), and ipso facto, the transition from the nominal to effective secret vote, shaped the nature of party politics in Brazil. Engaging the literature on political clientelism, the impact of the AB on three outcomes is studied: 1) the ideological leanings of voters at the ballot box; 2) the(More)
Politicians can bene…t by ensuring that public sector positions requiring political services are occupied by partisans. We study a model in which this political screening is achieved by varying the amount of required political services and associated compensation in otherwise similar positions. Past vote shares provide information on the population share of(More)
Using data from an e-voting experiment conducted in the 2005 Congressional Election in Argentina, we estimate the effect of different e-voting technologies on the likelihood that citizens cast their vote for different parties for the National Congress and the Legislature of Buenos Aires. Our results indicate that voters are extremely receptive to the(More)
Critical for our understanding of clientelism is to measure the size and structure of political networks. That is, to measure whether parties have a large enough supply of patrons, bureaucrats, activists, and volunteers, which would allow party leaders to properly invest particularistic resources among adequately chosen voters. In this article we take(More)
Since the 1970s wage inequality has been growing in the United States, yet another measure of inequality, the difference between women's and men's mean wages, has been declining. Some argue that the gender wage gap would have decreased even more, had overall wage inequality not grown. According to these researchers, the increasing dispersion of wages pushed(More)
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