Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi

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Sir2 NAD-dependent deacetylases connect transcription, metabolism, and aging. Increasing the dosage or activity of Sir2 extends life span in yeast, worms, and flies and promotes fat mobilization and glucose production in mammalian cells. Here we show that increased dosage of Sirt1, the mammalian Sir2 ortholog, in pancreatic beta cells improves glucose(More)
Wolfram syndrome (WFS; OMIM 222300) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder defined by young-onset non-immune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and progressive optic atrophy. Linkage to markers on chromosome 4p was confirmed in five families. On the basis of meiotic recombinants and disease-associated haplotypes, the WFS gene was localized to(More)
OBJECTIVE beta-Cells are particularly susceptible to fatty acid-induced apoptosis associated with decreased insulin receptor/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt signaling and the activation of stress kinases. We examined the mechanism of fatty acid-induced apoptosis of mouse beta-cells especially as related to the role played by endoplasmic reticulum (ER)(More)
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt/PKB pathway mediates the mitogenic effects various nutrients and growth factors in cultured cells. To study its effects in vivo in pancreatic islet beta cells, we created transgenic mice that expressed a constitutively active Akt1/PKB alpha linked to an Insulin gene promoter. Transgenic mice exhibited a grossly visible(More)
OBJECTIVE Conditional gene targeting has been extensively used for in vivo analysis of gene function in β-cell biology. The objective of this study was to examine whether mouse transgenic Cre lines, used to mediate β-cell- or pancreas-specific recombination, also drive Cre expression in the brain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Transgenic Cre lines driven by(More)
Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by childhood diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and severe neurodegeneration, resulting in premature death. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the phenotype of carbohydrate intolerance and loss of pancreatic beta cells in this disorder. To study the role of(More)
Individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) develop abnormalities of both neuronal and glial cell lineages, suggesting that the NF1 protein neurofibromin is an essential regulator of neuroglial progenitor function. In this regard, Nf1-deficient embryonic telencephalic neurospheres exhibit increased self-renewal and prolonged survival as explants in(More)
Elk-1, a member of the ternary complex factor family of Ets domain proteins that bind serum response elements, is activated by phosphorylation in a cell-specific manner in response to growth factors and other agents. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether Elk-1 activation contributes to glucose-/depolarization-induced Ca(2+)-dependent(More)
The insulin and IGF signaling pathways are critical for development and maintenance of pancreatic beta cell mass and function. The serine-threonine kinase Akt is one of several mediators regulated by these pathways. We have studied the role of Akt in pancreatic beta cell physiology by generating transgenic mice expressing a kinase-dead mutant of this enzyme(More)
Insulin is both a hormone regulating energy metabolism and a growth factor. We and others have shown that physiological doses of insulin initiate complex signals in primary human and mouse beta-cells, but the functional significance of insulin's effects on this cell type remains unclear. In the present study, the role of insulin in beta-cell apoptosis was(More)