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Practical methods are described in detail for the construction of tungsten microelectrodes. Straightened 127 μm-diameter tungsten wires are etched to sharp points in KNO2 solution. The sharpened wires are insulated by collapsing borosilicate-glass capillaries onto them in a horizontal pipette puller. A novel technique is described for the removal of(More)
Axonal projections of eighty-four rostral medullary expiratory neurones of the Bötzinger complex were tested using antidromic mapping techniques in anaesthetized cats. A projection to the ventral respiratory neurones of the medulla (n.r.a.) was shown in eleven out of twelve tested neurones. Also a spinal projection to the C5-C6 cervical segments was evident(More)
1. Monoplar tungsten micro-electrodes were used to stimulate and platinun plated tungsten micro-electrodes to record from single, unmyelinated cerebellar parallel fibres and lateral Lissauer tract axons in cats. 2. Stimulation of the lateral Lissauer tract resulted in the activation of a narrow, longitudinal 'beam', much as on the cerebellar surface. 3.(More)
Intracellular recordings were made from frog retinal ganglion cell axons in the optic nerve. Following electrophysiological characterisation of receptive field properties, HRP was injected into the axon, and the brain and retina were subsequently stained. The morphologies of retinal ganglion cells, their dendritic domains, and their central projections were(More)
Synaptic connections between medullary expiratory neurons and phrenic motoneurons were studied in anesthetized cats using spike-triggered averaging of synaptic noise in phrenic motoneurons. Monosynaptic inhibition of phrenic motoneurons originating from the rostral medullary expiratory neurons of the Bötzinger complex was revealed. Neither mono- nor(More)
The investigation examined the synaptic input from medullary respiratory neurons in the nucleus retroambigualis (NRA) to external (EIM) and internal (IIM) intercostal motoneurons. Antidromic mapping revealed that 112/117 (96%) tested NRA units had axons descending into thoracic spinal cord with extensive arborizations at many thoracic segments, mainly(More)
Respiratory neurones from retrofacial (NRF) and Bötzinger nuclei (BOT) were tested electrophysiologically for projection to the contralateral inspiratory region of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). Antidromic activation was demonstrated for 30 expiratory neurons (out of a mixed population of 61). There was evidence of extensive branching within(More)
333 units were recorded in laminae 2 and 3 of lumbar cord in decerebrate cats. Recording of small-amplitude spikes was made possible by the use of platinum-surfaced tungsten microelectrodes, continuously variable filters and an analogue delay line display. Stimulation of the lateral Lissauer tract showed that a sample of the units sent axons into this(More)