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Leaf-level photosynthetic-light response and plant-level daily carbon gain were estimated for seedlings of moderately shade-tolerant yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) and shade-tolerant sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) growing in gaps and under a closed canopy in a sugar maple stand at Duchesnay, Que. All(More)
AIMS To determine if impulsivity and socio-economic status (SES) interact to influence gambling onset in youth. DESIGN Longitudinal study of grade 7 students followed for 8 years. SETTING Montréal, Canada. PARTICIPANTS A total of 628 adult students aged 12.6 years on average at cohort inception. MEASUREMENTS Impulsivity and SES (parent education,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of cigarette smoking on vascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory outcomes in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS Subjects were patients enrolled in the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group cohort. Smoking history was obtained by patient self-report. The effect of smoking was assessed using multiple(More)
Advanced melanoma has proven difficult to treat for many years, and no previous agent has shown improved survival in a phase 3 trial. The deepening understanding of tumor immunobiology and the complexity of the interactions between host T cells and cancer have led to novel treatment approaches. Among these, ipilimumab is a first-in-class T-cell potentiator(More)
Immune thrombocytopenia, or ITP, has been recognized as a clinical entity for centuries, and the importance of humoral mechanisms in the pathophysiology of ITP has been recognized for decades. Despite the long history of the syndrome, progress in understanding its epidemiology and management has been hindered by inconsistencies in nomenclature and(More)
BACKGROUND The relationship between ambient temperature and risk of delivery is poorly understood. We examined the association between heat and risk of delivery among preterm and term pregnancies with the use of a time-to-event design to minimize bias from seasonal variation in conception rates. METHODS We used data on 206,929 term and 12,390 preterm(More)
LIGNUM is a whole tree model, developed for Pinus sylvestris in Finland, that combines tree metabolism with a realistic spatial distribution of morphological parts. We hypothesize that its general concepts, which include the pipe model, functional balance, yearly carbon budget, and a set of architectural growth rules, are applicable to all trees. Adaptation(More)
OBJECTIVE Both oral and global health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are markedly impaired in SSc. In this study we aimed to determine the degree of association between oral HRQoL and global HRQoL in SSc. METHODS Subjects were recruited from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group registry. Global HRQoL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Trust(More)
PURPOSE Life expectancy is used to measure population health, but large differences in mortality can be masked even when there is no life expectancy gap. We demonstrate how Arriaga's decomposition method can be used to assess inequality in mortality between populations with near equal life expectancy. METHODS We calculated life expectancy at birth for(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop a clinical decision rule to predict the presence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma) and to estimate the prevalence of SSc-ILD. METHODS Patient data were extracted from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group registry. Three algorithms for the clinical decision rule were considered based on lung(More)