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AIMS To determine if impulsivity and socio-economic status (SES) interact to influence gambling onset in youth. DESIGN Longitudinal study of grade 7 students followed for 8 years. SETTING Montréal, Canada. PARTICIPANTS A total of 628 adult students aged 12.6 years on average at cohort inception. MEASUREMENTS Impulsivity and SES (parent education,(More)
LIGNUM is a whole tree model, developed for Pinus sylvestris in Finland, that combines tree metabolism with a realistic spatial distribution of morphological parts. We hypothesize that its general concepts, which include the pipe model, functional balance, yearly carbon budget, and a set of architectural growth rules, are applicable to all trees. Adaptation(More)
Advanced melanoma has proven difficult to treat for many years, and no previous agent has shown improved survival in a phase 3 trial. The deepening understanding of tumor immunobiology and the complexity of the interactions between host T cells and cancer have led to novel treatment approaches. Among these, ipilimumab is a first-in-class T-cell potentiator(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of cigarette smoking on vascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory outcomes in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS Subjects were patients enrolled in the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group cohort. Smoking history was obtained by patient self-report. The effect of smoking was assessed using multiple(More)
OBJECTIVE The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Scleroderma Clinical Trial Consortium GI Tract Instrument (UCLA SCTC GITI) was recently developed to measure gastrointestinal tract disease in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Our study assesses the internal consistency and validity of the instrument in a different population than was used in the(More)
PURPOSE Life expectancy is used to measure population health, but large differences in mortality can be masked even when there is no life expectancy gap. We demonstrate how Arriaga's decomposition method can be used to assess inequality in mortality between populations with near equal life expectancy. METHODS We calculated life expectancy at birth for(More)
BACKGROUND The relationship between ambient temperature and risk of delivery is poorly understood. We examined the association between heat and risk of delivery among preterm and term pregnancies with the use of a time-to-event design to minimize bias from seasonal variation in conception rates. METHODS We used data on 206,929 term and 12,390 preterm(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of different methods of modeling smoking on vascular outcomes in rheumatic diseases. METHODS Data from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Registry were used. Patients self-reported their smoking history. Vascular outcomes were severity of Raynaud's phenomenon, presence of finger ulcers, and severity of finger ulcers.(More)
Cigarette smoking has significant negative effects on vascular, pulmonary and gastrointestinal outcomes in systemic sclerosis (SSc). The objective of this study was to study the effect of cigarette smoking on the extent of skin disease in SSc. Subjects were patients enrolled in the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group cohort. Smoking history was obtained by(More)
Immune thrombocytopenia, or ITP, has been recognized as a clinical entity for centuries, and the importance of humoral mechanisms in the pathophysiology of ITP has been recognized for decades. Despite the long history of the syndrome, progress in understanding its epidemiology and management has been hindered by inconsistencies in nomenclature and(More)