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Antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were generated and frequently became dominant in clonal populations of FMDV (clone C-S8c1) grown in the absence of anti-FMDV antibodies. We have now passaged eight samples of the same FMDV clone in the presence of a limited amount of neutralizing polyclonal antibodies directed to the major antigenic(More)
Maintenance of a persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in BHK-21 cells involves a coevolution of cells and virus (J. C. de la Torre, E. Martínez-Salas, J. Díez, A. Villaverde, F. Gebauer, E. Rocha, M. Dávila, and E. Domingo, J. Virol. 62:2050-2058, 1988). The resident FMDV undergoes a number of phenotypic changes, including a gradual(More)
Trunkamide A (1) is a cyclic heptapeptide extracted from the ascidian Lissoclinum sp. and has shown very promising cytotoxic activity. This compound incorporates several of the motifs commonly observed in the Patellin family, including dimethylallyl (Dma) Thr and Ser side chains and a thiazoline heterocycle. Given that little is known about the structures(More)
Kahalalide F, the only member of the family of peptides called kahalalides, isolated from the sacoglossan mollusc Elysia rufescens and the green alga Bryopsis sp., with important bioactivity, is in clinical trials for treatment of prostate cancer. An efficient solid-phase synthetic approach is reported. Kahalalide F presents several synthetic difficulties:(More)
Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nMAbs) elicited against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of serotype C were assayed with field isolates and variant FMDVs using several immunoassays. Of a total of 36 nMAbs tested, 23 recognized capsid protein VP1 and distinguished at least 13 virion conformation-independent epitopes involved in neutralization of FMDV(More)
Cellular entry of peptide, protein, and nucleic acid biopharmaceuticals is severely impeded by the cell membrane. Linkage or assembly of such agents and cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) with the ability to cross cellular membranes has opened a new horizon in biomedical research. Nevertheless, the uptake mechanisms of most CPP have been controversially(More)
The N-terminal proline-rich domain of γ-zein (Zera) plays an important role in protein body (PB) formation not only in the original host (maize seeds) but in a broad spectrum of eukaryotic cells. However, the elements within the Zera sequence that are involved in the biogenesis of PBs have not been clearly identified. Here, we focused on amino acid sequence(More)
Recent experimental evidence points to intermediates populated during the process of amyloid fibril formation as the toxic moieties primarily responsible for the development of increasingly common disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. We describe here the application of a pulse-labeling hydrogen-deuterium (HD) exchange strategy(More)
Directed cell migration and axonal guidance are essential steps in neural development. Both processes are controlled by specific guidance cues that activate the signaling cascades that ultimately control cytoskeletal dynamics. Another essential step in migration and axonal guidance is the regulation of plasmalemma turnover and exocytosis in leading edges(More)
Zeins are maize storage proteins that accumulate inside large vesicles called protein bodies. gamma-Zein lines the inner surface of the protein body membrane, and its N-terminal, proline-rich, repetitive domain with the sequence (VHLPPP)(8) appears to be necessary for the accumulation of the protein within the organelle. Synthetic (VHLPPP)(8) adopts an(More)