Ernest Ekong

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INTRODUCTION The HIV-1 epidemic in African countries is largely due to non-B HIV-1 subtypes. Patterns and frequency of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations observed in these countries may differ from those in the developed world, where HIV-1 subtype B predominates. METHODS HIV-1 subtype and drug resistance mutations were assayed among Nigerian(More)
BACKGROUND Viral load (VL) quantification is considered essential for determining antiretroviral treatment (ART) success in resource-rich countries. However, it is not widely available in resource-limited settings where the burden of human immunodeficiency virus infection is greatest. In the absence of VL monitoring, switches to second-line ART are based on(More)
BACKGROUND As highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) is introduced into areas of the world in which hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly endemic, it is important to determine the influence of HBV on persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HBV coinfection who are receiving ART. METHODS We studied 1564 HIV-infected patients in Jos,(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term retention is a crucial component of HIV care because treatment success can only be measured among retained patients. Understanding determinants of retention will inform retention strategies. We evaluated the correlates of retention in a large HIV program in Nigeria. METHODS We reviewed quality of care data for 5320 randomly selected(More)
We tested the hypothesis that intramuscular immunization with a multisubunit chlamydial vaccine candidate will induce long lasting immune responses in mice. Accordingly, groups of female C57BL/6 mice were immunized intramuscularly with Vibrio cholerae ghosts (VCG) expressing the Poring B and polymorphic membrane protein-D proteins of Chlamydia trachomatis(More)
Diastolic pressure-length relationships of an ischemic region of the canine left ventricle were measured over a six-hour period following left anterior descending coronary artery ligation, and their evolution was compared with the extent of systolic aneurysmal bulging. Normalized ischemic segment length excursion, which after coronary artery ligation may be(More)
A diverse array of non-subtype B HIV-1 viruses circulates in Africa and dominates the global pandemic. It is important to understand how drug resistance mutations in non-B subtypes may develop differently from the patterns described in subtype B. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease sequences from 338 patients with treatment failure to first-line ART(More)
The effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) response in patients in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. We studied 1431 HIV-infected ART initiators in Jos, Nigeria, of whom 6% were HCV coinfected. A similar proportion of HIV/HCV-coinfected and HIV-monoinfected patients achieved HIV RNA <400 copies per milliliter after 24 and 48 weeks of(More)
Abstract The gag p6 region of HIV-1 has various nonsubstitutionary mutations, including insertions, duplications, deletions, and premature stop codons. Studies have linked gag p6 mutations to reduced susceptibility to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 subtype B. This study examined the relationship between antiretroviral therapy and gag p6 diversity in HIV-1(More)