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BACKGROUND As highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) is introduced into areas of the world in which hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly endemic, it is important to determine the influence of HBV on persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HBV coinfection who are receiving ART. METHODS We studied 1564 HIV-infected patients in Jos,(More)
We tested the hypothesis that intramuscular immunization with a multisubunit chlamydial vaccine candidate will induce long lasting immune responses in mice. Accordingly, groups of female C57BL/6 mice were immunized intramuscularly with Vibrio cholerae ghosts (VCG) expressing the Poring B and polymorphic membrane protein-D proteins of Chlamydia trachomatis(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term retention is a crucial component of HIV care because treatment success can only be measured among retained patients. Understanding determinants of retention will inform retention strategies. We evaluated the correlates of retention in a large HIV program in Nigeria. METHODS We reviewed quality of care data for 5320 randomly selected(More)
INTRODUCTION The HIV-1 epidemic in African countries is largely due to non-B HIV-1 subtypes. Patterns and frequency of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations observed in these countries may differ from those in the developed world, where HIV-1 subtype B predominates. METHODS HIV-1 subtype and drug resistance mutations were assayed among Nigerian(More)
BACKGROUND Viral load (VL) quantification is considered essential for determining antiretroviral treatment (ART) success in resource-rich countries. However, it is not widely available in resource-limited settings where the burden of human immunodeficiency virus infection is greatest. In the absence of VL monitoring, switches to second-line ART are based on(More)
Diastolic pressure-length relationships of an ischemic region of the canine left ventricle were measured over a six-hour period following left anterior descending coronary artery ligation, and their evolution was compared with the extent of systolic aneurysmal bulging. Normalized ischemic segment length excursion, which after coronary artery ligation may be(More)
The effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) response in patients in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. We studied 1431 HIV-infected ART initiators in Jos, Nigeria, of whom 6% were HCV coinfected. A similar proportion of HIV/HCV-coinfected and HIV-monoinfected patients achieved HIV RNA <400 copies per milliliter after 24 and 48 weeks of(More)
BACKGROUND Nigeria bears nearly 10% of the global burden of HIV/AIDS. Most of the AIDS patients dwell in the part of Nigeria known as the "North Central" geopolitical region. Sustaining HIV patients in this high risk region is critical for the overall success of the ART program in Nigeria. We assessed the level of adherence to ART and adherence determinants(More)
A diverse array of non-subtype B HIV-1 viruses circulates in Africa and dominates the global pandemic. It is important to understand how drug resistance mutations in non-B subtypes may develop differently from the patterns described in subtype B. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease sequences from 338 patients with treatment failure to first-line ART(More)
We evaluated adult Nigerian patients with antiretroviral switch to second-line treatment with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r)-based regimens due to virologic failure (confirmed HIV-1 RNA viral load [VL] >1000 copies/mL) during first-line antiretroviral therapy. Proportion of patients with VL >400 copies/mL and characteristics associated with(More)