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There has been a recent increase in the diagnosis of in situ duct carcinoma of the breast (DCIS) as a result of mammographic screening. DCIS is heterogeneous in appearance and likely in prognosis. There is no generally accepted model to predict progression to invasive carcinoma. We investigated the prognostic effect of clinical presentation and pathologic(More)
Numerous studies have examined the relationship between organochlorines and breast cancer, but the results are not consistent. In most studies, organochlorines were measured in serum, but levels in breast adipose tissue are higher and represent cumulative internal exposure at the target site for breast cancer. Therefore, a hospital-based case-control study(More)
BACKGROUND A patient's likelihood of dying from breast cancer or another cause can be assessed with competing risks analyses. METHODS Data for a cohort of 678 patients with primary invasive breast cancer accrued from 1971 to 1990, updated to 1995, included cause of death (e.g., breast cancer vs. other cause). We investigated the effects of age, tumor(More)
ER and PgR concentrations were assayed in primary and secondary breast carcinoma specimens from patients classified into 3 groups: (1) both specimens excised on the same occasion (61 patients); (2) specimens obtained on separate occasions with no intervening treatment (43 patients); (3) specimens obtained on separate occasions with intervening chemotherapy(More)
Oestrogen and progesterone receptor (ER and PgR) assay values are frequently used in medical decision-making for breast cancer patients. We have proposed statistical standardization of receptor assay values to improve inter-laboratory comparability, and now report the use of standardized log units (SLU) to investigate the effects of ER and PgR cut-points on(More)
BACKGROUND Invasive breast cancer is a frequently diagnosed disease that now comes with an ever expanding array of therapeutic management options. We assessed the effects of 20 prognostic factors in a multivariate context. METHODS We accrued clinical data for 156 consecutive patients with stage 1-3 primary invasive breast cancer who were diagnosed in(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the combined and individual predictive values of fine-needle aspiration (FNA), physical examination (PE) of the breast and mammography (the "triple test") in diagnosing breast cancer in relation to the results of open surgical biopsy. DESIGN A study of the records of patients who received both FNA and open surgical biopsy for the same(More)
BACKGROUND Tumor size affects the choice of surgical procedure and patient prognosis. It is standardly assessed as the largest unidimensional measurement and, for multifocal disease, as the largest size of the largest focus. We examine some different methods of assessing tumor size: the standard method; the sum of the largest sizes for all foci; surface(More)
The effects of prognostic factors on local, regional or distant metastasis are standardly assessed separately. Competing risks analyses may be used to assess simultaneously the effects of factors on different types of first recurrence. Data for a cohort of 678 primary invasive breast cancer patients accrued between 1971 and 1990, updated to 1995, included(More)