Ernest Andrew Gould

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Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most dangerous human infections occurring in Europe and many parts of Asia. The etiological agent Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), is a member of the virus genus Flavivirus, of the family Flaviviridae. TBEV is believed to cause at least 11,000 human cases of encephalitis in Russia and about 3000 cases in the(More)
While some skeptics remain unconvinced that global climate change is a reality, there is no doubt that during the past 50 years or so, patterns of emerging arbovirus diseases have changed significantly. Can this be attributed to climate change? Climate is a major factor in determining: (1) the geographic and temporal distribution of arthropods; (2)(More)
To elucidate the processes controlling the emergence and spread of dengue-2 virus (DEN-2) we examined the evolution of viral isolates sampled from both local (Viet Nam) and global populations. Our phylogenetic analysis, incorporating envelope (E) glycoprotein sequences from 147 isolates of DEN-2, provided a more complete picture of viral diversity, with a(More)
Haemorrhagic disease, encephalitis, biphasic fever, flaccid paralysis, and jaundice are typical manifestations of diseases in human beings after infections by mosquito-borne or tick-borne flaviviruses such as yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, St Louis encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, Kyasanur Forest disease, and Omsk haemorrhagic(More)
Several human diseases in Europe are caused by viruses transmitted by tick bite. These viruses belong to the genus Flavivirus, and include tick-borne encephalitis virus, Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus, louping ill virus, Powassan virus, Nairovirus (Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus) and Coltivirus (Eyach virus). All of these viruses cause more or less(More)
Millions of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have died in Europe, Asia, Australia and New Zealand during the past 17 years following infection by Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). This highly contagious and deadly disease was first identified in China in 1984. Epidemics of RHDV then radiated across Europe until the virus(More)
Here we describe the complete genome sequences of two strains of Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne member of the genus Flavivirus in the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serogroup. USUV was detected in Austria in 2001 causing a high mortality rate in blackbirds; the reference strain (SAAR-1776) was isolated in 1958 from mosquitoes in South Africa and(More)
The genus Flavivirus, which contains approximately 70 single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses, represents a unique model for studying the evolution of vector-borne disease, as it includes viruses that are mosquito-borne, tick-borne or have no known vector. Both theoretical work and field studies suggest the existence of a large number of undiscovered(More)
Here, we analyze the complete coding sequences of all recognized tick-borne flavivirus species, including Gadgets Gully, Royal Farm and Karshi virus, seabird-associated flaviviruses, Kadam virus and previously uncharacterized isolates of Kyasanur Forest disease virus and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus. Significant taxonomic improvements are proposed, e.g. the(More)