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MEK1 and MEK2 are closely related, dual-specificity tyrosine/threonine protein kinases found in the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Approximately 30% of all human cancers have a constitutively activated MAPK pathway, and constitutive activation of MEK1 results in cellular transformation. Here we present the X-ray(More)
Atherosclerosis is a chronic, maladaptive, nonresolving inflammatory response which underlies the leading cause of death in the world today. During the process, macrophages play a central role in both the initiation and development stages of disease pathogenesis. MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate almost all biological processes.(More)
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is known to be a major risk factor for the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. It can elicit an array of atherogenic responses in multiple types of cells residing in the arterial wall, such as endothelial cells (ECs), macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Although(More)
Herein, we report the discovery of novel, proline-based factor Xa inhibitors containing a neutral P1 chlorophenyl pharmacophore. Through the additional incorporation of 1-(4-amino-3-fluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyridin-2-one 22, as a P4 pharmacophore, we discovered compound 7 (PD 0348292). This compound is a selective, orally bioavailable, efficacious FXa inhibitor(More)
Renin is an aspartyl protease involved in the production of angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. Renin inhibitors can prevent blood vessel constriction and therefore could be useful for the treatment of hypertension. High-throughput screening efforts identified a small molecule renin inhibitor with a core substituted diaminopyrimidine ring. Parallel(More)
The enzyme complex prothrombinase plays a pivotal role in fibrin clot development through the production of thrombin, making this enzyme complex an attractive target for therapeutic regulation. This study both functionally and structurally characterizes a potent, highly selective, active site directed inhibitor of human factor Xa and prothrombinase,(More)
We have found that both enantiomeric configurations of the 6-alkoxymethyl-1-aryl-2-piperazinone scaffold display equipotent renin inhibition activity and similar SAR patterns. This enantiomeric flexibility is in contrast to a previously reported 3-alkoxymethyl-4-arylpiperidine scaffold.
A novel series of pyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxamides was discovered as factor Xa inhibitors using structure-based drug design. This series consisted of a neutral 4-chlorophenylurea P1, a biphenylsulfonamide P4 and a D-proline scaffold (1, IC(50) = 18 nM). Optimization of the initial hit resulted in an orally bioavailable, subnanomolar inhibitor of factor Xa(More)
A systematic investigation of the S3 sub-pocket activity requirements was conducted. It was observed that linear and sterically small side chain substituents are preferred in the S3 sub-pocket for optimal renin inhibition. Polar groups in the S3-sub-pocket were not well tolerated and caused a reduction in renin inhibitory activity. Further, compounds with(More)
Novel 2,4-diaminopyrimidine-based small molecule renin inhibitors are disclosed. Through high throughput screening, parallel synthesis, X-ray crystallography, and structure based drug design, we have developed the first non-chiral, non-peptidic, small molecular template to possess moderate potency against renin. The designed compounds consist of a novel(More)