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A general overview is presented of the changes in the genetic expression along a time curve through the first 20 min after acidification to pH 4.5 of exponentially growing cultures of the food pathogenic strain Staphylococcus aureus 50583. A newly developed method for statistical significance testing was used to detect significant gene expression responses.(More)
Benzalkonium chloride (BC) is a commonly used disinfectant and preservative. This study describes changes in expression level at the transcriptomic and proteomic level for Escherichia coli K-12 gradually adapted to a tolerance level to BC of 7-8 times the initial MIC. Results from DNA arrays and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for global gene and(More)
AIMS To characterize micro-organisms isolated from Norwegian dairy production plants after cleaning and fogging disinfection with alkyl amine/peracetic acid and to indicate reasons for survival. METHODS AND RESULTS Microbial samples were collected from five dairy plants after cleaning and fogging disinfection. Isolates from two of these production plants,(More)
Exposure of Escherichia coli to a subminimal inhibitory concentration (25% below MIC) of benzalkonium chloride (BC), an antimicrobial membrane-active agent commonly used in medical and food-processing environments, resulted in cell death and changes in cell morphology (filamentation). A small subpopulation (1-5% of the initial population) survived and(More)
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