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The interactions of integrins with extracellular matrix proteins can activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and suppress apoptosis in normal epithelial and endothelial cells; this subset of apoptosis has been termed "anoikis." Here, we demonstrate that FAK plays a role in the suppression of anoikis. Constitutively activated forms of FAK rescued two(More)
Inorganic nanostructures that interface with biological systems have recently attracted widespread interest in biology and medicine. Nanoparticles are thought to have potential as novel intravascular probes for both diagnostic (e.g., imaging) and therapeutic purposes (e.g., drug delivery). Critical issues for successful nanoparticle delivery include the(More)
Expression of a constitutively active R-ras converted two cell lines that grow in suspension into highly adherent cells. There was little change in cell surface expression of integrins, but attachment to surfaces coated with the integrin ligands was greatly enhanced. Cells transfected with activated R-ras bound integrin ligands from solution with higher(More)
Nanoparticle-based diagnostics and therapeutics hold great promise because multiple functions can be built into the particles. One such function is an ability to home to specific sites in the body. We describe here biomimetic particles that not only home to tumors, but also amplify their own homing. The system is based on a peptide that recognizes clotted(More)
Adherent cells assemble fibronectin into a fibrillar matrix on their apical surface. The fibril formation is initiated by fibronectin binding to the integrins alpha5 beta1 and alphav beta3, and is completed by a process that includes fibronectin self-assembly. We found that a 76- amino acid fragment of fibronectin (III1-C) that forms one of the(More)
A delicate balance of signals regulates cell survival. One set of these signals is derived from integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Loss of cell attachment to the ECM causes apoptosis, a process known as anoikis. In searching for proteins involved in cell adhesion-dependent regulation of anoikis, we identified Bit1, a(More)
The various types of cells that comprise the tumor mass all carry molecular markers that are not expressed or are expressed at much lower levels in normal cells. These differentially expressed molecules can be used as docking sites to concentrate drug conjugates and nanoparticles at tumors. Specific markers in tumor vessels are particularly well suited for(More)
The ability to detect and quantify macrophage accumulation can provide important diagnostic and prognostic information for atherosclerotic plaque. We have previously shown that LyP-1, a cyclic 9-amino acid peptide, binds to p32 proteins on activated macrophages, facilitating the visualization of atherosclerotic plaque with PET. Yet, the in vivo plaque(More)
Nanomaterials that can circulate in the body hold great potential to diagnose and treat disease. For such applications, it is important that the nanomaterials be harmlessly eliminated from the body in a reasonable period of time after they carry out their diagnostic or therapeutic function. Despite efforts to improve their targeting efficiency, significant(More)