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A radiological assessment has been carried out considering discharges of radioactivity to the Baltic Sea marine environment since 1950. The sources of radioactivity that have been evaluated are atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and La Hague transported into the(More)
The process of assessing risk to the environment following a given release of radioactivity requires the quantification of activity concentrations in environmental media and reference organisms. The methodology adopted by the ERICA Integrated Approach involves the application of concentration ratios (CR values) and distribution coefficients (K(d) values)(More)
The amount and vertical distribution of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs in the bottom sediments of some Finnish lakes were studied. Sediment and surface water samples were taken in 2000 and 2003 from 12 stations in nine lakes and the results were compared with those obtained in corresponding surveys carried out in 1969, 1978, 1988 and 1990. Each of the five(More)
The long-term behaviour of 137Cs was studied in two freshwater ecosystems in southern Finland in an area most loaded by the Chernobyl fallout in 1986. Samples were taken from water, sediments, aquatic plants and fish in the lakes and from soil, mushrooms and seed plants in the catchments. The activity concentrations of 137Cs in fish have remained at a(More)
The total amounts of 137Cs and 90Sr transported from Finland by rivers into the Gulf of Finland, Gulf of Bothnia and Archipelago Sea since 1986 were estimated. The estimates were based on long-term monitoring of 137Cs and 90Sr in river and other surface waters and on the statistics of water discharges from Finnish rivers to the above sub-areas of the Baltic(More)
In August 1992 a joint Russian-Finnish expedition was arranged to the NW part of Lake Ladoga to study radioactive contamination in the region. Special attention was paid to the area surrounding the Heinämaa Islands, where the wreck of the former mine carrier ship “Kit” had been lying about 30 years before it was moved to Novaya Zemlya in 1991. During this(More)
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