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In conifers, attacks by bark beetles and associated pathogenic fungi cause an induced wound response, which is characterized by accumulation of antifungal compounds and morphological changes that aid wound healing. In this article the stilbene and terpene concentrations of Norway spruce phloem were monitored as symptoms of induced wound responses in(More)
Many mechanisms, functions and structures of life have been unraveled. However, the fundamental driving force that propelled chemical evolution and led to life has remained obscure. The 2 nd law of thermodynamics, written as an equation of motion, reveals that elemental abiotic matter evolves from the equilibrium via chemical reactions that couple to(More)
The aim of this study was to determine whether fertilization and the consequent increase in growth reduce the allocation of soluble carbohydrates in response to an induced wound. Norway spruce trees fertilized with N, P or NPK were artificially infected with Ceratocystis polonica, a blue-stain fungus associated with the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. N(More)
Sexual and asexual modes of proliferation are associated with advantages and disadvantages, yet a profound percept that would account for both ways of reproduction is missing. On the basis of the 2nd law of thermodynamics we find that both sexual and asexual reproduction can be regarded as a means to consume free energy in least time. Parthenogenesis is a(More)
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