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The large spectrum of limb morphologies reflects the wide evolutionary diversification of the basic pentadactyl pattern in tetrapods. In even-toed ungulates (artiodactyls, including cattle), limbs are adapted for running as a consequence of progressive reduction of their distal skeleton to symmetrical and elongated middle digits with hoofed phalanges. Here(More)
SMAD4 is an essential mediator of canonical TGFβ/BMP signal transduction and we inactivated Smad4 in mouse limb buds from early stages onward to study its functions in the mesenchyme. While this Smad4 inactivation did not alter the early Sox9 distribution, prefiguring the chondrogenic primordia of the stylopod and zeugopod, it disrupted formation of all(More)
Early branching events during lung development are stereotyped. Although key regulatory components have been defined, the branching mechanism remains elusive. We have now used a developmental series of 3D geometric datasets of mouse embryonic lungs as well as time-lapse movies of cultured lungs to obtain physiological geometries and displacement fields. We(More)
Mathematical Modelling has a long history in developmental biology. Advances in experimental techniques and computational algorithms now permit the development of increasingly more realistic models of organogenesis. In particular, 3D geometries of developing organs have recently become available. In this paper, we show how to use image-based data for(More)
Virtual application appliances (VAA) (i.e., prebuilt virtual machines (VM) for specific scientific applications) are useful mechanisms to deal with the packaging of complex software systems and heterogeneous software environments (e.g., library version conflicts on different clusters and clouds). As an experience paper, we discuss some basic techniques for(More)
One of the major challenges in biology concerns the integration of data across length and time scales into a consistent framework: how do macroscopic properties and functionalities arise from the molecular regulatory networks-and how can they change as a result of mutations? Morphogenesis provides an excellent model system to study how simple molecular(More)
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