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Technology has the promise to transform educational prac-tices worldwide. In particular, cognitive tutoring systems are an example of educational technology that has been ex-tremely effective at improving mathematics learning over traditional classroom instruction. However, studies on the effectiveness of tutor software have been conducted mainly in the(More)
Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the NSF or PSLC. Abstract Mathematics is a topic in American education in which students lag behind their international peers, yet it is a key building block for high-performing careers in science, computers,(More)
In this paper, we describe developmental and empirical steps we have taken toward providing Cognitive Tutoring to students within a collaborative software environment. We have taken two important steps toward realizing this goal. First, we have integrated a collaborative software tool, Cool Modes, with software designed to develop Cognitive Tutors (the(More)
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in automatically assessing help seeking, the process of referring to resources outside of oneself to accomplish a task or solve a problem. Research in the United States has shown that specific help-seeking behaviors led to better learning within intelligent tutoring systems. However, intelligent tutors are(More)
Our long-term research goal is to provide cognitive tutoring of collaboration within a collaborative software environment. This is a challenging goal, as intelligent tutors have traditionally focused on cognitive skills, rather than on the skills necessary to collaborate successfully. In this paper, we describe progress we have made toward this goal. Our(More)
Scaffolding learners, i.e. helping learners to attain tasks they could not accomplish without support, entails the notion of fading, i.e. reducing the scaffolding for learners to become more and more self-regulated. Fading implies to tailor support for collaboration, such as collaboration scripts, to the particular needs of the specific collaborators. In(More)
How environmental factors combine with genetic risk at the molecular level to promote complex trait diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) is largely unknown. In mice, N-glycan branching by the Golgi enzymes Mgat1 and/or Mgat5 prevents T cell hyperactivity, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) endocytosis, spontaneous inflammatory demyelination and(More)
Certain cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have been linked to dysfunction of prefrontal cortical (PFC) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons and appear neurodevelopmental in nature. Since opioids suppress GABA neuron activity, we conducted the first study to determine 1) whether the μ opioid receptor (MOR), δ opioid receptor (DOR), and opioid ligand(More)
Research on computer-supported collaborative learning has shown that students need support to benefit from collaborative activities. While classical collaboration scripts have been effective in providing such support, they have also been criticized for being coercive and not allowing students to self-regulate their learning. Adaptive collaboration support,(More)
For 20 years, researchers have envisioned artificially intelligent learning companions that evolve with their students as they grow and learn. However, while communication theory suggests that positivity decreases over time in relationships, most tutoring systems designed to build rapport with a student remain adamantly polite, and may therefore(More)