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Technology has the promise to transform educational prac-tices worldwide. In particular, cognitive tutoring systems are an example of educational technology that has been ex-tremely effective at improving mathematics learning over traditional classroom instruction. However, studies on the effectiveness of tutor software have been conducted mainly in the(More)
In this paper, we describe developmental and empirical steps we have taken toward providing Cognitive Tutoring to students within a collaborative software environment. We have taken two important steps toward realizing this goal. First, we have integrated a collaborative software tool, Cool Modes, with software designed to develop Cognitive Tutors (the(More)
Our long-term research goal is to provide cognitive tutoring of collaboration within a collaborative software environment. This is a challenging goal, as intelligent tutors have traditionally focused on cognitive skills, rather than on the skills necessary to collaborate successfully. In this paper, we describe progress we have made toward this goal. Our(More)
How environmental factors combine with genetic risk at the molecular level to promote complex trait diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) is largely unknown. In mice, N-glycan branching by the Golgi enzymes Mgat1 and/or Mgat5 prevents T cell hyperactivity, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) endocytosis, spontaneous inflammatory demyelination and(More)
Research on computer-supported collaborative learning has shown that students need support to benefit from collaborative activities. While classical collaboration scripts have been effective in providing such support, they have also been criticized for being coercive and not allowing students to self-regulate their learning. Adaptive collaboration support,(More)
Certain cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have been linked to dysfunction of prefrontal cortical (PFC) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons and appear neurodevelopmental in nature. Since opioids suppress GABA neuron activity, we conducted the first study to determine 1) whether the μ opioid receptor (MOR), δ opioid receptor (DOR), and opioid ligand(More)
In this paper, we describe progress we have made toward providing cognitive tutoring to students within a collaborative software environment. First, we have integrated a collaborative software tool, Cool Modes, with software designed to develop Cognitive Tutors (the Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tool). Our initial integration provides a means to capture data(More)
Scaffolding learners, i.e. helping learners to attain tasks they could not accomplish without support, entails the notion of fading, i.e. reducing the scaffolding for learners to become more and more self-regulated. Fading implies to tailor support for collaboration, such as collaboration scripts, to the particular needs of the specific collaborators. In(More)
For 20 years, researchers have envisioned artificially intelligent learning companions that evolve with their students as they grow and learn. However, while communication theory suggests that positivity decreases over time in relationships, most tutoring systems designed to build rapport with a student remain adamantly polite, and may therefore(More)
Adaptive collaborative learning support systems analyze student collaboration as it occurs and provide targeted assistance to the collaborators. Too little is known about how to design adaptive support to have a positive effect on interaction and learning. We investigated this problem in a reciprocal peer tutoring scenario, where two students take turns(More)