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Dendritic spines are motile structures that contain high concentrations of filamentous actin. Using hippocampal neurons expressing fluorescent actin and the method of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we found that 85 +/- 2% of actin in the spine was dynamic, with a turnover time of 44.2 +/- 4.0 s. The rapid turnover is not compatible with current(More)
Although retinal bipolar cells represent a morphologically well defined population of retinal interneurons, very little is known about the developmental mechanisms that regulate their processing. Furthermore, the identity of specific bipolar cell types that function in distinct visual circuits remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the homeobox gene(More)
We investigated the roles of two Rab-family proteins, Rab3a and Rab5a, in hippocampal synaptic transmission using real-time fluorescence imaging. During synaptic activity, Rab3a dissociated from synaptic vesicles and dispersed into neighbouring axonal regions. Dispersion required calcium-dependent exocytosis and was complete before the entire vesicle pool(More)
Interneuronal subtype diversity lies at the heart of the distinct molecular properties and synaptic connections that shape the formation of the neuronal circuits that are necessary for the complex spatial and temporal processing of sensory information. Here, we investigate the role of Irx6, a member of the Iroquois homeodomain transcription factor family,(More)
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