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Abnormal respiratory chemosensitivity is implicated in recurrent apnea syndromes, with the peripheral chemoreceptors, the carotid bodies, playing a particularly important role. Previous work suggests that supraphysiological concentrations of the endocannabinoid endovanilloid and TASK channel blocker anandamide (ANA) excite carotid bodies, but the(More)
Thermus aquaticus Y51MC23 was isolated from a boiling spring in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. Remarkably, this T. aquaticus strain is able to grow anaerobically and produces multiple morphological forms. Y51MC23 is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped organism that grows well between 50°C and 80°C with maximum growth rate at 65°C to 70°C.(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is an important mediator of the stress response and is crucial in maintaining breathing in neonates. Here we investigate the role of exogenously applied PACAP in neonatal breathing using the neonatal rat in situ working heart-brainstem preparation. A 1-min bolus of 250 nM PACAP-38 caused an increased in(More)
Spatially distinct, interacting oscillators in the bullfrog medulla generate and coordinated buccal and lung ventilatory rhythms, but how these rhythms are transmitted onto trigeminal and hypoglossal motor neurons is unknown. Using a vertically-mounted isolated brainstem preparation, the Sheep Dip, we identified the regions of the brainstem containing motor(More)
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