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Inhibitory receptors play a crucial role in regulating CD8 T-cell function during chronic viral infection. T-cell Ig- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) is well known to negatively regulate T-cell responses, but its role in CD8 T-cell exhaustion during chronic infection in vivo remains unclear. In this study, we document coregulation of CD8 T(More)
We and others have previously demonstrated that nociception in the mouse is heritable. A genetic correlation analysis of 12 common measures of nociception among a common set of inbred strains revealed three major clusters (or 'types') of nociception in this species. In the present study, we re-evaluated the major types of nociception and their(More)
The inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) is upregulated on antigen-specific CD8+ T cells during persistent viral infections. Interaction with PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) contributes to functional exhaustion of responding T cells and may limit immunopathology during infection. PD-L1 is expressed on both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells in tissues.(More)
To design successful vaccines for chronic diseases, an understanding of memory CD8(+) T cell responses to persistent antigen restimulation is critical. However, most studies comparing memory and naive cell responses have been performed only in rapidly cleared acute infections. Herein, by comparing the responses of memory and naive CD8(+) T cells to acute(More)
Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by rapid alveolar injury, inflammation, cytokine induction, and neutrophil accumulation. Although early events in the pathogenesis of ALI have been defined, the mechanisms underlying resolution are unknown. As a model of ALI, we administered intratracheal (i.t.) LPS to mice and observed peak lung injury 4 days after(More)
The inhibitory receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) plays a major role in functional exhaustion of T cells during chronic infections and cancer, and recent clinical data suggest that blockade of the PD-1 pathway is an effective immunotherapy in treating certain cancers. Thus, it is important to define combinatorial approaches that increase the efficacy(More)
SUMMARY One potentially promising strategy to control chronic infections such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus is therapeutic vaccination, which aims to reduce persisting virus by stimulating a patient's own antiviral immune responses. However, this approach has fallen short of expectations, because antiviral T cells(More)
Functionally exhausted T cells have high expression of the PD-1 inhibitory receptor, and therapies that block PD-1 signaling show promise for resolving chronic viral infections and cancer. By using human and murine systems of acute and chronic viral infections, we analyzed epigenetic regulation of PD-1 expression during CD8(+) T cell differentiation. During(More)
This article analyzes differences in displacement of ANS and of the upper first molar when different vectors of force are delivered to the maxilla in non-full-banded Phase I mixed-dentition treatment of Class II malocclusion. The sample is identical to that for which we have previously reported differences in change in several key measures of mandibular and(More)