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HIV-1 infection begins with the binding of trimeric viral envelope glycoproteins (Env) to CD4 and a co-receptor on target T-cells. Understanding how these ligands influence the structure of Env is of fundamental interest for HIV vaccine development. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we describe the contrasting structural outcomes of trimeric Env binding to(More)
Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is increasingly becoming a mainstream technology for studying the architecture of cells, viruses and protein assemblies at molecular resolution. Recent developments in microscope design and imaging hardware, paired with enhanced image processing and automation capabilities, are poised to further advance the effectiveness(More)
The Ebola virus glycoprotein mucin-like domain (MLD) is implicated in Ebola virus cell entry and immune evasion. Using cryo-electron tomography of Ebola virus-like particles, we determined a three-dimensional structure for the full-length glycoprotein in a near-native state and compared it to that of a glycoprotein lacking the MLD. Our results, which show(More)
The extensive carbohydrate coat, the variability of protein structural features on HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env), and the steric constraints of the virus-cell interface during infection, present challenges to the elicitation of effective full-length (~150 kDa), neutralizing antibodies against HIV. These hurdles have motivated the engineering of smaller(More)
UNLABELLED ZMapp, a cocktail of three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs; c2G4, c4G7, and c13C6) against the ebolavirus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP), shows promise for combatting outbreaks of EBOV, as occurred in West Africa in 2014. Prior studies showed that Fabs from these MAbs bind a soluble EBOV GP ectodomain and that MAbs c2G4 and c4G7, but not c13C6, neutralize(More)
UNLABELLED Influenza viruses expressing chimeric hemagglutinins (HAs) are important tools in the quest for a universal vaccine. Using cryo-electron tomography, we have determined the structures of a chimeric HA variant that comprises an H1 stalk and an H5 globular head domain (cH5/1 HA) in native and antibody-bound states. We show that cH5/1 HA is(More)
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