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HIV-1 infection begins with the binding of trimeric viral envelope glycoproteins (Env) to CD4 and a co-receptor on target T-cells. Understanding how these ligands influence the structure of Env is of fundamental interest for HIV vaccine development. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we describe the contrasting structural outcomes of trimeric Env binding to(More)
UNLABELLED Influenza viruses expressing chimeric hemagglutinins (HAs) are important tools in the quest for a universal vaccine. Using cryo-electron tomography, we have determined the structures of a chimeric HA variant that comprises an H1 stalk and an H5 globular head domain (cH5/1 HA) in native and antibody-bound states. We show that cH5/1 HA is(More)
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