Erin D. Williams

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OBJECTIVE Using decision analysis, a cost-utility study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of CyberKnife (Accuray, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in comparison to external beam radiation therapy in the treatment of metastatic spinal malignancies. METHODS The published literature provided evidence on the effectiveness of the comparator(More)
Animals act under the influence of mental representations that result from a variety of internal and external factors. Understanding how animals create, activate, and manipulate such representations is a central concern for studies of animal learning and memory. A variety of techniques (e.g., delayed matching-to-sample tasks and maze tasks) have been(More)
President Obama signed into law a comprehensive health care reform bill, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA; P.L. 111-148). Health care reform has been the Obama Administration's top domestic priority, driven by concerns about the growing ranks of the uninsured and the unsustainable growth in spending on health care and health insurance.(More)
The Common Rule (45 CFR 46, Subpart A) governs research that is conducted on human beings if it is funded by one of 18 federal agencies. It requires a review of proposed research by an Institutional Review Board (IRB), the informed consent of research subjects, and institutional assurances of compliance with the regulations. In 1974, 45 CFR 46 was published(More)
The term dual use technologies refers to research and technology with the potential both to yield valuable scientific knowledge and to be used for nefarious purposes with serious consequences for public health or the environment. There are two main approaches to assessing dual use technologies: pragmatic and metaphysical. A pragmatic approach relies on(More)
If one takes as a starting assumption that close relationship partners – friends, romantic partners, and family members have a positive attitude toward caring about one another's welfare and wish their partners to care for their own welfare in return, then some people certainly do behave in some baffling ways at times. In the face of partner needs, some(More)
BACKGROUND There is limited understanding of the health economic implications of cervical screening with human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 genotyping. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of cervical cancer primary screening with a HPV-16/18 genotyping test which simultaneously detects 12 other high-risk HPV types. (More)
In this study, we provide normative data for objects in a set of 80 digital color pictures (e.g., nature scenes, human activities, cartoon characters, magazine covers). In Experiment 1, four objects in each picture were rated by 48 observers on a 6-point Likert scale for their relevance to the overall meaning of the scene. In Experiment 2, Salience Toolbox(More)