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The ribonucleic acid (RNA) helicases retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) recognize distinct viral and synthetic RNAs, leading to the production of interferons. Although 5'-triphosphate single-stranded RNA is a RIG-I ligand, the role of RIG-I and MDA5 in double-stranded (ds) RNA recognition remains to(More)
We present electrostatic force microscopy images of double-stranded DNA and transcription complex on an insulating mica substrate obtained with molecular resolution using a frequency-mode noncontact atomic force microscope. The electrostatic potential images show that both DNA and transcription complexes are polarized with an upward dipole moment. Potential(More)
In general, gene-dependent translational progress affects the efficiency of protein expression. To evaluate the translational progress of protein synthesis, it is necessary to trace the time course of translation as well as the quantity of products. Here we present a new method for tracking translation steps in cell-free protein synthesis using atomic force(More)
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a novel way to understand the structure-function relationship of protein synthesis at a single-molecular level. High-resolution AFM imaging in air, liquid and vacuum allows for single DNA, RNA and proteins to be observed at the nano-scale in addition to their conformational transitions, bound states, temporal behavior,(More)
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