Erika V. Valore

Learn More
Cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides are abundant in animal and plant tissues involved in host defense. In insects, most are synthesized in the fat body, an organ analogous to the liver of vertebrates. From human urine, we characterized a cysteine-rich peptide with three forms differing by amino-terminal truncation, and we named it hepcidin (Hepc) because(More)
Hepcidin is a liver-made peptide proposed to be a central regulator of intestinal iron absorption and iron recycling by macrophages. In animal models, hepcidin is induced by inflammation and iron loading, but its regulation in humans has not been studied. We report that urinary excretion of hepcidin was greatly increased in patients with iron overload,(More)
Human beta-defensins (HBDs) are antimicrobial peptides that may play a role in mucosal defense. Diminished activity of these peptides has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. We show that HBD-1 and HBD-2 mRNAs are expressed in excised surface and submucosal gland epithelia from non-CF and CF patients. The(More)
Antimicrobial peptides are widely distributed mediators of innate host defense in animals and plants. A 36 amino acid antimicrobial peptide belonging to the defensin family, and named human beta-defensin-1 (HBD-1), was purified recently from hemodialysate fluid, but its tissue sources were not identified. By Northern blotting, we found the highest(More)
We found that sterile wounding of human skin induced epidermal expression of the antimicrobial (poly)peptides human beta-defensin-3, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor through activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. After skin wounding, the receptor was activated by heparin-binding epidermal(More)
Bacterial vaginosis is a common condition associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infections. In contrast, vulvovaginal candidiasis has a much weaker association with sexually transmitted diseases. We found that vaginal lavage fluid from women with bacterial vaginosis is deficient in(More)
OBJECTIVE We examined the antimicrobial activity and composition of vaginal fluid. STUDY DESIGN Vaginal fluid from preweighed tampons was assayed for pH, lactic acid, and antimicrobial polypeptides. The fluid was also fractionated by molecular filtration. Antimicrobial activity of whole fluid was determined against representative resident and exogenous(More)
Recovery from blood loss requires a greatly enhanced supply of iron to support expanded erythropoiesis. After hemorrhage, suppression of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin allows increased iron absorption and mobilization from stores. We identified a new hormone, erythroferrone (ERFE), that mediates hepcidin suppression during stress erythropoiesis. ERFE(More)
Hereditary hemochromatosis, an iron overload disease caused by a deficiency in the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin, is associated with lethal infections by siderophilic bacteria. To elucidate the mechanisms of this susceptibility, we infected wild-type and hepcidin-deficient mice with the siderophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus and found that hepcidin(More)
The stratified epithelia of the oral cavity are continually exposed to bacterial challenge that is initially resisted by innate epithelial factors and by the recruitment of neutrophils. Antimicrobial peptides from phagocytes and epithelia contribute to this antimicrobial barrier. Using antibodies and in situ hybridization, we explored antimicrobial peptide(More)