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Cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides are abundant in animal and plant tissues involved in host defense. In insects, most are synthesized in the fat body, an organ analogous to the liver of vertebrates. From human urine, we characterized a cysteine-rich peptide with three forms differing by amino-terminal truncation, and we named it hepcidin (Hepc) because(More)
Hepcidin is a liver-made peptide proposed to be a central regulator of intestinal iron absorption and iron recycling by macrophages. In animal models, hepcidin is induced by inflammation and iron loading, but its regulation in humans has not been studied. We report that urinary excretion of hepcidin was greatly increased in patients with iron overload,(More)
Human beta-defensins (HBDs) are antimicrobial peptides that may play a role in mucosal defense. Diminished activity of these peptides has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. We show that HBD-1 and HBD-2 mRNAs are expressed in excised surface and submucosal gland epithelia from non-CF and CF patients. The(More)
Antimicrobial peptides are widely distributed mediators of innate host defense in animals and plants. A 36 amino acid antimicrobial peptide belonging to the defensin family, and named human beta-defensin-1 (HBD-1), was purified recently from hemodialysate fluid, but its tissue sources were not identified. By Northern blotting, we found the highest(More)
Recovery from blood loss requires a greatly enhanced supply of iron to support expanded erythropoiesis. After hemorrhage, suppression of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin allows increased iron absorption and mobilization from stores. We identified a new hormone, erythroferrone (ERFE), that mediates hepcidin suppression during stress erythropoiesis. ERFE(More)
The stratified epithelia of the oral cavity are continually exposed to bacterial challenge that is initially resisted by innate epithelial factors and by the recruitment of neutrophils. Antimicrobial peptides from phagocytes and epithelia contribute to this antimicrobial barrier. Using antibodies and in situ hybridization, we explored antimicrobial peptide(More)
Defensins are antibiotic peptides expressed in human and animal myeloid and epithelial cells. Due to the limited availability of natural peptides, the properties of human epithelial defensins have not been studied. We assayed the microbicidal activity of recombinant human intestinal defensin 5 (rHD-5) in the presence of salt (O to 150 mM NaCl) with varied(More)
Anemia is a common complication of infections and inflammatory diseases, but the few mouse models of this condition are not well characterized. We analyzed in detail the pathogenesis of anemia induced by an injection of heat-killed Brucella abortus and examined the contribution of hepcidin by comparing wild-type (WT) to iron-depleted hepcidin-1 knockout(More)
The peptide hormone hepcidin is the principal regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. We examined the pathway by which iron stimulates the production of hepcidin. In humans who ingested 65 mg of iron, the increase in transferrin saturation preceded by hours the increase in urinary hepcidin excretion. Increases in urinary hepcidin concentrations were(More)
Hepcidin is encoded as an 84 amino acid prepropeptide containing a typical N-terminal 24 amino acid endoplasmic reticulum targeting signal sequence, and a 35 amino acid proregion (pro) with a consensus furin cleavage site immediately followed by the C-terminal 25 amino acid bioactive iron-regulatory hormone (mature peptide). We performed pulse-chase studies(More)