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Sensitivity to the euphoric and locomotor-activating effects of drugs of abuse may contribute to risk for excessive use and addiction. Repeated administration of psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (MA) can result in neuroadaptive consequences that manifest behaviorally as a progressive escalation of locomotor activation, termed psychomotor(More)
Urocortin 1 (Ucn 1) is an endogenous corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)-related peptide. Ucn 1 is most highly expressed in the perioculomotor urocortin containing neurons (pIIIu), previously known as the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW). Various studies indicate that these cells are involved in stress adaptation and the regulation of(More)
Studies of the mutagenic action required for specific chemicals to produce benign or malignant tumours suggest that in mouse skin at least two genetic events occur before carcinoma formation. The isolation of an activated form of the c-rasH gene from skin papillomas has provided evidence that this gene may be a target for the first mutation, which could(More)
Recent data suggest that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) influences long-term plasticity at hippocampal synapses by converting plasminogen into plasmin, which then generates mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) from its precursor, proBDNF. Motivated by this hypothesis, we used fluorescent chimeras, expressed in hippocampal neurons, to(More)
Multi-stage carcinogenesis (initiation-promotion) was first demonstrated in mouse skin. The first stage, initiation, is accomplished by a low dose of carcinogen that causes no tumours. Promotion by repeated treatment of initiated mice with certain non-carcinogenic hyperplastic agents results in the rapid production of numerous benign papillomas, a few of(More)
The progression of papillomas to squamous cell carcinomas (malignant conversion) was studied in the skin of SENCAR and Charles River CD-1 mice, using a three-stage treatment protocol. After initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) (stage 1) and limited promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (stage II), papilloma-bearing mice(More)
INTRODUCTION Urocortin 1 (Ucn 1) is an endogenous peptide related to the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Ucn 1 is mainly expressed in the perioculomotor area (pIII), and its involvement in alcohol self-administration is well confirmed in mice. In other species, the relationship between the perioculomotor Ucn 1-containing population of neurons (pIIIu)(More)
The perioculomotor urocortin-containing population of neurons (pIIIu: otherwise known as the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus) is sensitive to alcohol and is involved in the regulation of alcohol intake. A recent study indicated that this brain region is also sensitive to psychostimulants. Since pIIIu has been shown to respond to stress, we(More)
The pathology of 60 aged female SENCAR mice used as acetone controls in skin painting studies was studied. Fifty percent of the mice survived past 96 weeks of age. The major contributing causes of death identified in 42 mice were glomerulonephritis (8 mice), histiocytic sarcoma (7 mice), and other tumors (8 mice). Glomerulonephritis was found in the(More)
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