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Hebb's rule (1949) states that learning and memory are based on modifications of synaptic strength among neurons that are simultaneously active. This implies that enhanced synaptic coincidence detection would lead to better learning and memory. If the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor, a synaptic coincidence detector, acts as a graded switch for memory(More)
Protein kinases have proved to be largely resistant to the design of highly specific inhibitors, even with the aid of combinatorial chemistry. The lack of these reagents has complicated efforts to assign specific signalling roles to individual kinases. Here we describe a chemical genetic strategy for sensitizing protein kinases to cell-permeable molecules(More)
We produced CA1-specific NMDA receptor 1 subunit-knockout (CA1-KO) mice to determine the NMDA receptor dependence of nonspatial memory formation and of experience-induced structural plasticity in the CA1 region. CA1-KO mice were profoundly impaired in object recognition, olfactory discrimination and contextual fear memories. Surprisingly, these deficits(More)
The hippocampal CA1 region is crucial for converting new memories into long-term memories, a process believed to continue for week(s) after initial learning. By developing an inducible, reversible, and CA1-specific knockout technique, we could switch N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function off or on in CA1 during the consolidation period. Our data(More)
We have analyzed the developmental molecular programs of the mouse hippocampus, a cortical structure critical for learning and memory, by means of large-scale DNA microarray techniques. Of 11,000 genes and expressed sequence tags examined, 1,926 showed dynamic changes during hippocampal development from embryonic day 16 to postnatal day 30. Gene-cluster(More)
Bovine papillomavirus type 12 (BPV-12, putative type BAA1) was detected in epithelial papilloma located on the tongue of an infected cow. Then, the whole genome was sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis illustrated that it should be classified as a member of the genus Xipapillomavirus. The viral genome is 7197 base pairs in length and contains five early(More)
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