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Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary but not sufficient cause of cervical cancer. While chlamydia infection has been associated with cervical cancer, the meaning of this association remains unclear. The authors' objective was to investigate this association by evaluating whether concurrent genital tract infections are associated with HPV(More)
Invasion of mammalian cells by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi occurs by an actin-independent mechanism distinct from phagocytosis. Clusters of host lysosomes are observed at the site of parasite attachment, and lysosomal markers are detected in the vacuolar membrane at early stages of the entry process. These observations led to the hypothesis(More)
BACKGROUND Syphilis outbreaks among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States have raised concerns about increased HIV transmission in this population. We sought to estimate HIV incidence among men diagnosed with primary or secondary (P&S) syphilis in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Atlanta, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Eight US cities experienced large outbreaks of syphilis among men having sex with men (MSM), beginning during 2000-2001. Provider-assisted partner notification via disease intervention specialists has traditionally composed a large part of syphilis control efforts. OBJECTIVES Report current effectiveness of syphilis partner notification for MSM(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals who use sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics are at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV). While HBV vaccine is frequently offered to clients in this setting, reported vaccination rates are low. More information is needed about HBV vaccine knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior among high risk populations. The current study(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that protection against New World leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania amazonensis can be elicited by immunization with the developmentally regulated Leishmania amastigote antigen, P-8. In this study, several independent experimental approaches were employed to investigate the protective immunological mechanisms involved.(More)
More than a decade into the 21(st) century, the ability to effectively monitor community health status, as well as forecast, detect, and respond to disease outbreaks and other events of public health significance, remains a major challenge. As an issue that affects population health, economic stability, and global security, the public health surveillance(More)
Malaria parasites break down human hemoglobin to its constituent amino acids by cysteine and aspartic proteinases. However, no one has previously been able to identify hemoglobin cleavage products in intact parasites. When isolated parasites were subjected to non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels electrophoresis, a unique protein band was found which contains(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment, contact investigation, and reporting decisions for syphilis cases are based on the stage of disease. Because of limitations of current staging protocols, the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer has been proposed as an alternative priority marker for contact investigation. METHODS We describe the RPR titers and stages for 10,021 syphilis(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to describe the integration of syndromic surveillance data into daily surveillance practice at local health departments (LHDs) and make recommendations for the effective integration of syndromic and reportable disease data for public health use. METHODS Structured interviews were conducted with local health directors and communicable(More)