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Invasion of mammalian cells by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi occurs by an actin-independent mechanism distinct from phagocytosis. Clusters of host lysosomes are observed at the site of parasite attachment, and lysosomal markers are detected in the vacuolar membrane at early stages of the entry process. These observations led to the hypothesis(More)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary but not sufficient cause of cervical cancer. While chlamydia infection has been associated with cervical cancer, the meaning of this association remains unclear. The authors' objective was to investigate this association by evaluating whether concurrent genital tract infections are associated with HPV(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that protection against New World leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania amazonensis can be elicited by immunization with the developmentally regulated Leishmania amastigote antigen, P-8. In this study, several independent experimental approaches were employed to investigate the protective immunological mechanisms involved.(More)
More than a decade into the 21(st) century, the ability to effectively monitor community health status, as well as forecast, detect, and respond to disease outbreaks and other events of public health significance, remains a major challenge. As an issue that affects population health, economic stability, and global security, the public health surveillance(More)
reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Objective Our objective was to describe changes in use following syndromic surveillance system modifications and assess the effectiveness of these modifications. Introduction Syndromic surveillance systems offer richer understanding of population health. However, because of their(More)
We present a discrete-event simulation model of the response of a local public health department (LHD) to pertussis cases. We take a comprehensive view of public health actions, beginning with detection of an individual patient, confirmation of the case by physician and lab tests, and contact tracing and isolation of contacts by LHD personnel. We explicitly(More)
We present a discrete-event simulation model of the response of a local public health department (LHD) to pertussis cases. We take a comprehensive view of public health actions, beginning with detection of an individual patient, confirmation of the case by physician and lab tests, and contact tracing and isolation of contacts by LHD personnel. We explicitly(More)
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