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Long-term regulation of energy balance involves two major trends: first age-related obesity develops in the middle-aged, later it is followed by anorexia of aging (sarcopenia and/or cachexia). A dynamic balance between orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides is essential for the regulation of energy homeostasis. Special imbalances of neuropeptide effects(More)
UNLABELLED Changes of the anorexigenic and hypermetabolic components of the overall catabolic effect of alpha-MSH were studied in rats as a function of age. In male Wistar rats a 7 day-long intracerebroventricular infusion of alpha-MSH suppressed food intake and caused a fall in body weight in 2 and 3-4 month-old (young) groups, but it was most effective in(More)
The hypothalamic melanocortin (MC) system is a major catabolic regulator of energy balance: it suppresses food intake (FI), elevates metabolic rate, and reduces body weight (BW). The primary activator of the MC system [mainly via the alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)] is the adipocyte-derived leptin. With increasing BW, resistance develops to(More)
Age-related obesity is known to be adjoined by leptin resistance. It has not been clarified whether the resistance is cause or result of obesity. In the present experiments, the anorexic (suppressing food intake and body weight) and hypermetabolic (increasing body temperature (Tc), activity, and heart rate (HR), indicating metabolic rate) responses to(More)
Leptin is produced mainly in the white adipose tissue and emerged as one of the key catabolic regulators of food intake and energy expenditure. During the course of aging characteristic alterations in body weight and body composition in humans and mammals, i.e. middle-aged obesity and aging anorexia and cachexia, suggest age-related regulatory changes in(More)
Intracerebroventricular injections of 10-20-microg orexin-A induce food intake in rats for about 30 min, or enhance fasting-induced hyperphagia. In thermoregulatory studies, an amount of 2 microg of the peptide causes hypometabolism and hypothermia in the same period. The thermoregulatory reaction can be demonstrated at moderately cool environments, mainly(More)
Intraperitoneal capsaicin desensitizes sensory fibers traveling within both the vagus and splanchnic nerves. Because capsaicin desensitization blocks the first phase of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fever, whereas surgical vagotomy does not, splanchnic mediation of the first phase was proposed. However, all phases of the febrile response of splanchnicotomized(More)
Leptin, a catabolic adiposity signal acts in the hypothalamus via suppressing food intake and inducing hypermetabolism. Age and obesity are accompanied by leptin resistance. The present study aimed to clarify which components of the catabolic leptin effects are influenced most strongly by aging and which ones by nutritional state-induced alterations in body(More)
Central neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection has been reported to cause hyperphagia and in some cases also hypometabolism or hypothermia. Chronic central administration induced a moderate rise of short duration in body weight, without consistent metabolic/thermal changes. In the present studies the acute and subsequent subacute ingestive and metabolic/thermal(More)
Capsaicin-sensitive abdominal vagal fibers contribute to postprandial satiety and hypermetabolism. We hypothesized that the hypometabolic adaptation to fasting involves similar mechanisms and that blockade of such signals might enhance loss of body weight upon fasting. A low dosage of capsaicin (5mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally desensitizes the local(More)