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DNA strand transfer reactions occur twice during retroviral reverse transcription catalyzed by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. The 4-chlorophenylhydrazone of mesoxalic acid (CPHM) was found to be an inhibitor of DNA strand transfer reactions catalyzed by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Using a model strand transfer assay system described previously [Davis, W. R.,(More)
In this study, we have developed a two model system to mimic the active and inactive states of a G-protein coupled receptor specifically the alpha1A adrenergic receptor. We have docked two agonists, epinephrine (phenylamine type) and oxymetazoline (imidazoline type), as well as two antagonists, prazosin and 5-methylurapidil, into two alpha1A receptor(More)
Recently, we demonstrated that IgG Abs can organize into ordered hexamers after binding their cognate Ags expressed on cell surfaces. This process is dependent on Fc:Fc interactions, which promote C1q binding, the first step in classical pathway complement activation. We went on to engineer point mutations that stimulated IgG hexamer formation and(More)
Human IgG is produced with C-terminal lysines that are cleaved off in circulation. The function of this modification was unknown and generally thought not to affect antibody function. We recently reported that efficient C1q binding and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) requires IgG hexamerization at the cell surface. Here we demonstrate that(More)
The complement and neutrophil defense systems, as major components of innate immunity, are activated during inflammation and infection. For neutrophil migration to the inflamed region, we hypothesized that the complement activation product C5a induces significant changes in cellular morphology before chemotaxis. Exposure of human neutrophils to C5a, dose-(More)
Complement-dependent cytotoxicity is an important mechanism of action of certain mAbs used in cancer immunotherapy, including ofatumumab and rituximab. However, the detailed sequence of cellular changes that occur in nucleated cells attacked by mAb and complement has not been delineated. Recently developed CD20 mAbs, engineered to form hexamers on binding(More)
We examined complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) by hexamer formation-enhanced CD20 mAb Hx-7D8 of patient-derived chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells that are relatively resistant to CDC. CDC was analyzed in normal human serum (NHS) and serum from an individual genetically deficient for C9. Hx-7D8 was able to kill up to 80% of CLL cells in complete(More)
During malarial anemia, 20 uninfected red blood cells (RBCs) are destroyed for every RBC infected by Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Increasing evidence indicates an important role for complement in destruction of uninfected RBCs. Products of RBC lysis induced by Pf, including the digestive vacuole and hematin, activate complement and promote C3 fragment(More)
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