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Gas exchange patterns and nocturnal acid accumulation were examined in four species of Clusia under simulated field conditions in the laboratory. Clusia alata and C. major had midday stomatal closure, substantial net CO2 exchange ([Formula: see text]) during the night, and the highest water use efficiency (WUE). C. venosa showed a pattern similar to a C3(More)
Malate synthesis by CO(2) dark fixation and malate accumulation in the vacuoles of leaf slices of Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier, a plant performing crassulacean acid metabolism, occurs only in external solutions where the osmotic pressure difference between the cells and the medium is low. Conversely, malate loss from the vacuoles depends on a(More)
The effect of CN(-) and N(2) on the electrical membrane potential (E(m)) was compared with that of CN(-) on the ATP levels in cotyledons of Gossypium hirsutum and in Lemna gibba L. In mature cotton tissue, CN(-) depolarized E(m) to the energy-independent diffusion potential (E(D)) in the dark. In the light E(m) recovered transiently. The same was observed(More)
Plants performing crassulacean acid metabolism show a large nocturnal accumulation of malic acid in the vacuole of the photosynthetic cells. It has been postulated that an H+-translocating ATPase energizes the transport of malic acid across the tonoplast into the vacuole. In the present work we have characterized the ATPase activity associated with vacuoles(More)
In the CAM plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana, kept in an environmental rhythm of 12 h L: 12 h D in a growth chamber at 60% relative humidity and well watered in the root medium, decreasing water potentials and osmotic potentials of the leaves are correlated with malate accumulation in the dark. In the light increasing water and osmotic potentials (ψ W and ψ S(More)
Vacuolar ATPase activities were determined by differential inhibition of homogenates of isolated protoplasts (using the inhibitors molybdate for acid phosphatases, vanadate for plasmalemma ATPase, azide for mitochondrial ATPase, and phlorizin for chloroplast ATPase) and in preparations of isolated vacuoles of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Kalanchoë(More)
A technique is described that allows a relatively rapid and controlled isolation of vacuoles from leaves of the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana. The method involves polybase-induced lysis of mesophyllcell protoplasts and isolation of vacuoles on a discontinuous density gradient. ATPase activity is associated with the(More)
The levels of phosphorylated compounds studied during the dark period of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in Kalanchoë leaves showed increases for ATP and pyrophosphate and decreases for ADP, AMP and phosphenolpyruvate; levels of inorganic phosphate remained constant. Changes in adenylate levels and the correlated nocturnal increase in(More)
To determine possible physiological responses to salinity, seedlings of Cereus validus Haworth, a cactus from Salinas Grandes, Argentina, were treated with up to 600 millimolar NaCl for up to 16 days when they were about 9 months old and 100 millimeters tall. Salt stress decreased stem biomass, e.g. it was 19.7 grams for controls and 11.4 grams for plants(More)
Malate efflux from leaf cells of the Crassulacean acid metabolism plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier was studied using leaf slices submerged in experimental solutions. Leaves were harvested at the end of the dark phase and therefore contained high malate levels. Water potentials of solutions were varied between 0 and -5 bar using mannitol (a(More)