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The complexity of human DNA has been affected by aerobic metabolism, including endurance exercise and oxygen toxicity. Aerobic endurance exercise could play an important role in the evolution of Homo sapiens, and oxygen was not important just for survival, but it was crucial to redox-mediated adaptation. The metabolic challenge during physical exercise(More)
Physical inactivity leads to increased incidence of a variety of diseases and it can be regarded as one of the end points of the exercise-associated hormesis curve. On the other hand, regular exercise, with moderate intensity and duration, has a wide range of beneficial effects on the body including the fact that it improves cardio-vascular function, partly(More)
Lipids, proteins and DNA in the central nervous system have a high sensitivity to oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced damage increases with aging, especially in the last quarter of the life span. The so called base level of oxidative modification of lipids could be important to cell signaling, and membrane remodeling, but the(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting the elderly population. It is predicted that the incidence of AD will be increased in the future making this disease one of the greatest medical, social, and economic challenges for individuals, families, and the health care system worldwide. The etiology of AD is multifactorial.(More)
Exercise can exert beneficial effects on cognitive functions of older subjects and it can also play an important role in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. At the same time it is perceivable that limited information is available on the nature of molecular pathways supporting the antioxidant effects of exercise in the brain. In this study 12-month(More)
Silent information regulators are potent NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases, which have been shown to regulate gene silencing, muscle differentiation and DNA damage repair. Here, changes in the level and activity of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in response to exercise in groups of young and old rats were studied. There was an age-related increase in SIRT1 level,(More)
The consequence of decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) levels as a result of oxidative challenge is altered activity of sirtuins, which, in turn, brings about a wide range of modifications in mammalian cellular metabolism. Sirtuins, especially SIRT1, deacetylate important transcription factors such as p53, forkhead homeobox type O proteins,(More)
High Capacity Runner (HCR) rats have been developed by divergent artificial selection for treadmill endurance running capacity to explore an aerobic biology-disease connection. The beneficial effects of resveratrol supplementation have been demonstrated in endurance running and the antioxidant capacity of resveratrol is also demonstrated. In this study we(More)
Aging results in a significant decline in aerobic capacity and impaired mitochondrial function. We have tested the effects of moderate physical activity on aerobic capacity and a single bout of exercise on the expression profile of mitochondrial biogenesis, and fusion and fission related genes in skeletal muscle of human subjects. Physical activity(More)
Aging is associated with a gradual decline in cognitive and motor functions, the result of complex biochemical processes including pre- and posttranslational modifications of proteins. Sirtuins are NAD(+) dependent protein deacetylases. These enzymes modulate the aging process by lysine deacetylation, which alters the activity and stability of proteins.(More)