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The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for transposon silencing in many model organisms. Its remarkable efficiency relies on a sophisticated amplification mechanism known as the ping-pong loop. In Alphavirus-infected Aedes mosquitoes, piRNAs with sequence features that suggest ping-pong-dependent biogenesis are produced from viral RNA. The(More)
UNLABELLED Small RNAs play a critical role in host-pathogen interaction. Indeed, small RNA-mediated silencing or RNA interference (RNAi) is one of the earliest forms of antiviral immunity. Although it represents the main defense system against viruses in many organisms, the antiviral role of RNAi has not been clearly proven in higher vertebrates. However,(More)
In plants and invertebrates RNA silencing is a major defense mechanism against virus infections. The first event in RNA silencing is dicing of long double stranded RNAs into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The Dicer proteins involved in this process are phylogenetically conserved and have the same domain organization. Accordingly, the production of viral(More)
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