Erika G. Spaich

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OBJECTIVE In spinal cord injured (SCI) subjects, exaggerated withdrawal reflexes associated with a dominant flexor pattern irrespective of stimulation site have been reported. In the present study, withdrawal reflex receptive field (RRF) was determined in complete SCI subjects (N=9). METHODS Distributed electrical stimulation was applied to the sole of(More)
Dynamic changes in the topography of the human withdrawal reflex receptive fields (RRF) were assessed by repetitive painful stimuli in 15 healthy subjects. A train of five electrical stimuli was delivered at a frequency of 3 Hz (total train duration 1.33 s). The train was delivered in random order to 10 electrode sites on the sole of the foot. Reflexes were(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the modulation and topography of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex elicited by painful electrical stimulation of the foot sole during gait. Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in this study. Cutaneous electrical stimulation was delivered on five locations of the foot sole after heel-contact, during foot-flat,(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to investigate the sensitivity of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex to stimulation of different locations on the sole of the foot during hemiplegic gait. METHODS Reflexes were evoked by cutaneous electrical stimulation of 4 locations on the sole of the foot of 7 hemiplegic and 6 age-matched healthy persons. The(More)
Characterization of gait pattern is of interest for clinical gait assessment. Past developments of ambulatory measurement systems have still limitations for daily usage in the clinical environment. This study investigated the potential of 3D angular accelerations of foot, shank, and thigh to characterize gait events and phases of ten healthy and ten(More)
The aims of the present study were to investigate whether temporal summation of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex depends on the stimulation site on the sole of the human foot, and to characterize the reflex receptive fields (RRF) of lower limb muscles to repetitive stimulation. The cutaneous RRFs were assessed in 15 subjects in sitting position by(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation and functional importance of nociceptive withdrawal reflexes elicited from the sole of the foot and recorded from the soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles during gait. Cutaneous electrical stimulation delivered at four locations of the sole of the foot was used to elicit the(More)
The objective of this study was to investigate the modulation of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex during gait measured using Force Sensitive Resistors (FSR). Electrical stimulation was delivered to four locations on the sole of the foot at three different time points between heel-off and toe-off. Peak force changes were measured by FSRs attached to the big(More)
The modulation of the lower limb nociceptive withdrawal reflex elicited during late stance by a stimulus train with frequencies of 15 and 30 Hz delivered to the mid-forefoot, arch of the foot, and heel was investigated. Stimulation was delivered at four moments of the gait cycle between heel-off and toe-off. Stimulation at 15 Hz induced larger kinematic(More)
Gait rehabilitation by Functional Electrical Stimulations (FESs) requires a reliable trigger signal to start the stimulations. This could be obtained by a simple switch under the heel or by means of an inertial sensor system. This study provides an algorithm to detect gait events in differential acceleration signals of the foot. The key feature of(More)