Erika G. Spaich

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After stroke, hemiparesis is a common problem resulting in very individual needs for walking assistance. Often patients suffer from foot drop, i.e. inability to lift the foot from the ground during the swing phase of walking. Functional electrical stimulation is commonly used to correct foot drop. For all supporting stimulation devices, it is vital to(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the modulation and topography of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex elicited by painful electrical stimulation of the foot sole during gait. Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in this study. Cutaneous electrical stimulation was delivered on five locations of the foot sole after heel-contact, during foot-flat,(More)
OBJECTIVE In spinal cord injured (SCI) subjects, exaggerated withdrawal reflexes associated with a dominant flexor pattern irrespective of stimulation site have been reported. In the present study, withdrawal reflex receptive field (RRF) was determined in complete SCI subjects (N=9). METHODS Distributed electrical stimulation was applied to the sole of(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to investigate the sensitivity of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex to stimulation of different locations on the sole of the foot during hemiplegic gait. METHODS Reflexes were evoked by cutaneous electrical stimulation of 4 locations on the sole of the foot of 7 hemiplegic and 6 age-matched healthy persons. The(More)
Dynamic changes in the topography of the human withdrawal reflex receptive fields (RRF) were assessed by repetitive painful stimuli in 15 healthy subjects. A train of five electrical stimuli was delivered at a frequency of 3 Hz (total train duration 1.33 s). The train was delivered in random order to 10 electrode sites on the sole of the foot. Reflexes were(More)
The modulation of the lower limb nociceptive withdrawal reflex elicited during late stance by a stimulus train with frequencies of 15 and 30 Hz delivered to the mid-forefoot, arch of the foot, and heel was investigated. Stimulation was delivered at four moments of the gait cycle between heel-off and toe-off. Stimulation at 15 Hz induced larger kinematic(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of bodyweight unloading on the excitability of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) and of its receptive fields organisation during quiet stance in humans. METHODS The NWR was elicited in 14 volunteers by electrical stimulation of the sole of the foot at mid-forefoot, arch, and heel points. Participants stood(More)
The aims of the present study were to investigate whether temporal summation of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex depends on the stimulation site on the sole of the human foot, and to characterize the reflex receptive fields (RRF) of lower limb muscles to repetitive stimulation. The cutaneous RRFs were assessed in 15 subjects in sitting position by(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation and functional importance of nociceptive withdrawal reflexes elicited from the sole of the foot and recorded from the soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles during gait. Cutaneous electrical stimulation delivered at four locations of the sole of the foot was used to elicit the(More)
Gait deficits are very common after stroke and improved therapeutic interventions are needed. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the therapeutic use of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex to support gait training in the subacute post-stroke phase. Individuals were randomly allocated to a treatment group that received physiotherapy-based(More)