Erika E Giste

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DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) are markers of regulatory DNA and have underpinned the discovery of all classes of cis-regulatory elements including enhancers, promoters, insulators, silencers and locus control regions. Here we present the first extensive map of human DHSs identified through genome-wide profiling in 125 diverse cell and tissue types. We(More)
Genome-wide association studies have identified many noncoding variants associated with common diseases and traits. We show that these variants are concentrated in regulatory DNA marked by deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) hypersensitive sites (DHSs). Eighty-eight percent of such DHSs are active during fetal development and are enriched in variants associated(More)
Regulatory factor binding to genomic DNA protects the underlying sequence from cleavage by DNase I, leaving nucleotide-resolution footprints. Using genomic DNase I footprinting across 41 diverse cell and tissue types, we detected 45 million transcription factor occupancy events within regulatory regions, representing differential binding to 8.4 million(More)
The development of complex organisms is believed to involve progressive restrictions in cellular fate. Understanding the scope and features of chromatin dynamics during embryogenesis, and identifying regulatory elements important for directing developmental processes remain key goals of developmental biology. We used in vivo DNaseI sensitivity to map the(More)
The basic body plan and major physiological axes have been highly conserved during mammalian evolution, yet only a small fraction of the human genome sequence appears to be subject to evolutionary constraint. To quantify cis- versus trans-acting contributions to mammalian regulatory evolution, we performed genomic DNase I footprinting of the mouse genome(More)
To study the evolutionary dynamics of regulatory DNA, we mapped >1.3 million deoxyribonuclease I-hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in 45 mouse cell and tissue types, and systematically compared these with human DHS maps from orthologous compartments. We found that the mouse and human genomes have undergone extensive cis-regulatory rewiring that combines(More)
The fundamental body plan and major physiological axes have been highly conserved during mammalian evolution, despite constraint of only a fraction of the human genome sequence. To quantify cisvs. trans-regulatory contributions to mammalian regulatory evolution, we performed genomic DNase I footprinting of the mouse genome across 25 cell and tissue types,(More)
Recombinant human thrombin (rhThrombin) is being developed as an alternative to thrombin products purified from pooled human or bovine plasma, which are currently marketed for topical hemostasis. Preclinical studies of rhThrombin were conducted prior to its evaluation as a topical adjunct to surgical hemostasis in clinical trials. No overt clinical(More)
The laboratory mouse shares the majority of its protein-coding genes with humans, making it the premier model organism in biomedical research, yet the two mammals differ in significant ways. To gain greater insights into both shared and species-specific transcriptional and cellular regulatory programs in the mouse, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium has mapped(More)
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