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OBJECTIVE Alterations in reward-related brain function and phenomenological aspects of positive affect are increasingly examined in the development of major depressive disorder. The authors tested differences in reward-related brain function in healthy and depressed adolescents, and the authors examined direct links between reward-related brain function and(More)
OBJECTIVE Changes in reward-related behavior are an important component of normal adolescent affective development. Understanding the neural underpinnings of these normative changes creates a foundation for investigating adolescence as a period of vulnerability to affective disorders, substance use disorders, and health problems. Studies of reward-related(More)
OBJECTIVE The study investigated the hypothesis that EEG asymmetry scores (indicating higher right and lower left frontal brain activity) are associated with vulnerability to negative mood states and depressive disorders. Gender and clinical history variables were examined as factors that may influence the relation between EEG and depression. METHOD EEG(More)
BACKGROUND Altered reward processing is postulated to be a feature of depression. Reward processing may be valuable to understanding early-onset depressive disorders, which tend to be chronic and recurrent. METHODS Reward-related decision making was examined within a longitudinal study of 221 11-year-old boys, 25 of whom had a depressive disorder at age(More)
To study affect regulation in adults with unipolar (n=38) and bipolar (n=38) forms of childhood-onset depression (COD), as compared with adults with no history of psychiatric illness (n=60), we examined affective modulation of the startle eyeblink reflex. Participants were subjected to binaural bursts of white noise while viewing pictures designed to elicit(More)
Active avoidance involving controlling and modifying threatening situations characterizes many forms of clinical pathology, particularly childhood anxiety. Presently our understanding of the neural systems supporting human avoidance is largely based on nonhuman research. Establishing the generality of nonhuman findings to healthy children is a needed first(More)
Adolescence is a time of dramatic changes including rapid physical growth, the onset of sexual maturation, the activation of new drives and motivations, and a wide array of social and affective changes and challenges. This review focuses on behavioral changes in this interval and is organized by the claim that a key set of these adolescent changes are part(More)
This study tests a model of children's emotion regulation (ER) as a moderator of the link between maternal depression and child internalizing problems. Participants were 78 children (ages 4 to 7), including 45 children of mothers with a history of childhood-onset depression (COD) and 33 children of mothers who had never been depressed. ER was assessed(More)
BACKGROUND Conceptual models and recent evidence indicate that neural response to reward is altered in depression. Taking a developmental approach to investigating reward function in adolescent depression can elucidate the etiology, pathophysiology and course of depression, a disorder that typically begins during adolescence and has high rates of(More)