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Individual differences in traits such as impulsivity involve high reward sensitivity and are associated with risk for substance use disorders. The ventral striatum (VS) has been widely implicated in reward processing, and individual differences in its function are linked to these disorders. Dopamine (DA) plays a critical role in reward processing and is a(More)
Sex differences in age- and puberty-related maturation of human brain structure have been observed in typically developing age-matched boys and girls. Because girls mature 1-2 years earlier than boys, the present study aimed at assessing sex differences in brain structure by studying 80 adolescent boys and girls matched on sexual maturity, rather than age.(More)
OBJECTIVE Alterations in reward-related brain function and phenomenological aspects of positive affect are increasingly examined in the development of major depressive disorder. The authors tested differences in reward-related brain function in healthy and depressed adolescents, and the authors examined direct links between reward-related brain function and(More)
OBJECTIVE Changes in reward-related behavior are an important component of normal adolescent affective development. Understanding the neural underpinnings of these normative changes creates a foundation for investigating adolescence as a period of vulnerability to affective disorders, substance use disorders, and health problems. Studies of reward-related(More)
BACKGROUND Altered reward processing is postulated to be a feature of depression. Reward processing may be valuable to understanding early-onset depressive disorders, which tend to be chronic and recurrent. METHODS Reward-related decision making was examined within a longitudinal study of 221 11-year-old boys, 25 of whom had a depressive disorder at age(More)
BACKGROUND Conceptual models and recent evidence indicate that neural response to reward is altered in depression. Taking a developmental approach to investigating reward function in adolescent depression can elucidate the etiology, pathophysiology and course of depression, a disorder that typically begins during adolescence and has high rates of(More)
BACKGROUND Although reward processing is considered an important part of affective functioning, few studies have investigated reward-related decisions or responses in young people with affective disorders. Depression is postulated to involve decreased activity in reward-related affective systems. METHODS Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),(More)
Adolescence is a time of dramatic changes including rapid physical growth, the onset of sexual maturation, the activation of new drives and motivations, and a wide array of social and affective changes and challenges. This review focuses on behavioral changes in this interval and is organized by the claim that a key set of these adolescent changes are part(More)
This study tests a model of children's emotion regulation (ER) as a moderator of the link between maternal depression and child internalizing problems. Participants were 78 children (ages 4 to 7), including 45 children of mothers with a history of childhood-onset depression (COD) and 33 children of mothers who had never been depressed. ER was assessed(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examines relationships between affect and sleep in youth with affective disorders using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). METHODS Participants included 94 youth, ages 8-16 (M = 11.73, 53% female) years with an anxiety disorder only (n = 23), primary major depressive disorder (with and without a secondary anxiety diagnoses; n =(More)