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A new approach for quantifying the relationship between brain activity patterns and depth of anesthesia (DOA) is presented by analyzing the spatio-temporal patterns in the electroencephalogram (EEG) using Lempel-Ziv complexity analysis. Twenty-seven patients undergoing vascular surgery were studied under general anesthesia with sevoflurane, isoflurane,(More)
This report builds upon pertinent theoretical considerations regarding the nature and importance of routinization within families and describes the development and validation of a standardized inventory to measure family routines. The Family Routines Inventory (FRI) measures 28 positive, strength-promoting family routines, those observable, repetitive(More)
BACKGROUND Autoregressive modeling with exogenous input of middle-latency auditory evoked potential (A-Line autoregressive index [AAI]) has been proposed for monitoring anesthetic depth. The aim of the current study was to compare the accuracy of this new index with the Bispectral Index (BIS), predicted effect-site concentration of propofol, and hemodynamic(More)
For several decades, a number of methods have been developed for the noninvasive assessment of the level of consciousness during general anesthesia. In this paper, detrended fluctuation analysis is used to study the scaling behavior of the electroencephalogram as a measure of the level of consciousness. Three indexes are proposed in order to characterize(More)
This paper describes the conceptual foundation underlying the development of the Family Routines Inventory, a new instrument designed to measure the extent of predictability or routinization in the daily life of a family. The primary impetus for the development of this instrument is a theoretical perspective in which family routines are regarded as(More)
BACKGROUND Extraction of the middle latency auditory evoked potentials (AEP) by an auto regressive model with exogenous input (ARX) enables extraction of the AEP within 1.7 s. In this way, the depth of hypnosis can be monitored at almost real-time. However, the identification and the interpretation of the appropriate signals of the AEP could be difficult to(More)
The objective of this article was to review the present methods used for validating the depth of hypnosis. We introduce three concepts, the real depth of hypnosis (DHreal), the observed depth of hypnosis (DHobs), and the electronic indices of depth of hypnosis (DHel-ind). The DHreal is the real state of hypnosis that the patient has in a given moment during(More)
A method is described for measuring middle-latency auditory evoked potentials (MLAEP) in consciously awake, non-sedated pigs during the induction of thiopentone anaesthesia (0.6 ml/kg, 2.5% thiopentone solution). It was done by using autoregressive modelling with an exogenous input (ARX). The ability to perceive pain during the induction was compared with(More)
PURPOSE The aim of the study was to determine the optimum time for administration of neostigmine during recovery from atracurium-induced neuromuscular blockade. METHODS The study comprised 103 patients anaesthetised with midazolam, fentanyl, thiopentone, halothane, and nitrous oxide. Relaxation was induced with atracurium 0.5 mg. kg-1 and maintained with(More)
BACKGROUND This study was conducted to compare the performance accuracy of the independent variables Bispectral Index (BIS), A-Line ARX index (AAI), and predicted propofol effect-site concentration (CePROP) to measure the dependent variables of loss of responses to different stimulation defined as loss of response to verbal command (LORverbal), eyelash(More)