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A new approach for quantifying the relationship between brain activity patterns and depth of anesthesia (DOA) is presented by analyzing the spatio-temporal patterns in the electroencephalogram (EEG) using Lempel-Ziv complexity analysis. Twenty-seven patients undergoing vascular surgery were studied under general anesthesia with sevoflurane, isoflurane,(More)
BACKGROUND Autoregressive modeling with exogenous input of middle-latency auditory evoked potential (A-Line autoregressive index [AAI]) has been proposed for monitoring anesthetic depth. The aim of the current study was to compare the accuracy of this new index with the Bispectral Index (BIS), predicted effect-site concentration of propofol, and hemodynamic(More)
For several decades, a number of methods have been developed for the noninvasive assessment of the level of consciousness during general anesthesia. In this paper, detrended fluctuation analysis is used to study the scaling behavior of the electroencephalogram as a measure of the level of consciousness. Three indexes are proposed in order to characterize(More)
The objective of this article was to review the present methods used for validating the depth of hypnosis. We introduce three concepts, the real depth of hypnosis (DHreal), the observed depth of hypnosis (DHobs), and the electronic indices of depth of hypnosis (DHel-ind). The DHreal is the real state of hypnosis that the patient has in a given moment during(More)
BACKGROUND Extraction of the middle latency auditory evoked potentials (AEP) by an auto regressive model with exogenous input (ARX) enables extraction of the AEP within 1.7 s. In this way, the depth of hypnosis can be monitored at almost real-time. However, the identification and the interpretation of the appropriate signals of the AEP could be difficult to(More)
A method is described for measuring middle-latency auditory evoked potentials (MLAEP) in consciously awake, non-sedated pigs during the induction of thiopentone anaesthesia (0.6 ml/kg, 2.5% thiopentone solution). It was done by using autoregressive modelling with an exogenous input (ARX). The ability to perceive pain during the induction was compared with(More)
BACKGROUND This study was conducted to compare the performance accuracy of the independent variables Bispectral Index (BIS), A-Line ARX index (AAI), and predicted propofol effect-site concentration (CePROP) to measure the dependent variables of loss of responses to different stimulation defined as loss of response to verbal command (LORverbal), eyelash(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to prospectively test the Cerebral State Index designed for measuring the depth of anesthesia. The Cerebral State Index is calculated using a fuzzy logic combination of four subparameters of the electroencephalographic signal. The performance of the Cerebral State Index was compared with that of the Bispectral(More)
BACKGROUND The extraction of the middle latency auditory evoked potentials (MLAEP) is usually done by moving time averaging (MTA) over many sweeps (often 250-1,000), which could produce a delay of more than 1 min. This problem was addressed by applying an autoregressive model with exogenous input (ARX) that enables extraction of the auditory evoked(More)
BACKGROUND This study investigates the accuracy of a composite index, the A-Line(R) auditory evoked potentials index version 1.6 (AAI1.6; Danmeter A/S, Odense, Denmark), as a measure of cerebral anesthetic drug effect in a model for predicting a calculated effect site concentration of propofol (CePROP). The AAI1.6 algorithm extracts information from the(More)