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Although ecologists have long recognized that animal space use is primarily determined by the presence of predators and the distribution of resources, the effects of these two environmental conditions have never been quantified simultaneously in a single spatial model. Here, in a novel approach, predator-specific landscapes of fear are constructed on the(More)
Ecological factors have been shown to be important for brain size evolution. In this comparative study among catarrhine primates, we examine two different ways in which seasonality may be related to brain size. First, seasonality may impose energetic constraints on the brain because it forces animals to deal with periods of food scarcity (Expensive Brain(More)
The geographic distribution of Bornean orang-utans and its overlap with existing land-use categories (protected areas, logging and plantation concessions) is a necessary foundation to prioritize conservation planning. Based on an extensive orang-utan survey dataset and a number of environmental variables, we modelled an orang-utan distribution map. The(More)
Group-living animals often do not maintain territories, but instead have highly overlapping ranges, even though in principle these are economically defendable. We investigate whether this absence of range defence reflects a collective action problem, since a territory can be considered a public good. In a comparative analysis comprising 135 primate species,(More)
Two surveys of over 1,700 publications whose authors use quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) reveal a lack of transparent and comprehensive reporting of essential technical information. Reporting standards are significantly improved in publications that cite the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines,(More)
Although geographic variation in an organism's traits is often seen as a consequence of selection on locally adaptive genotypes accompanied by canalized development [1], developmental plasticity may also play a role [2, 3], especially in behavior [4]. Behavioral plasticity includes both individual learning and social learning of local innovations(More)
In trajectory data a low sampling rate leads to high uncertainty in between sampling points, which needs to be taken into account in the analysis of such data. However, current algorithms for movement analysis ignore this uncertainty and assume linear movement between sample points. In this paper we develop a framework for movement analysis using the(More)
Female philopatry in mammals is generally associated with ecological and sometimes social benefits, and often with dispersal by males. Previous studies on dispersal patterns of orangutans, largely non-gregarious Asian great apes, have yielded conflicting results. Based on 7 years of observational data and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses on fecal(More)
Perturbed biomechanical stimuli are thought to be critical for the pathogenesis of a number of congenital heart defects, including Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS). While embryonic cardiomyocytes experience biomechanical stretch every heart beat, their molecular responses to biomechanical stimuli during heart development are poorly understood. We(More)
We developed a novel Designed Primer-based RNA-sequencing strategy (DP-seq) that uses a defined set of heptamer primers to amplify the majority of expressed transcripts from limiting amounts of mRNA, while preserving their relative abundance. Our strategy reproducibly yielded high levels of amplification from as low as 50 picograms of mRNA while offering a(More)