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Although ecologists have long recognized that animal space use is primarily determined by the presence of predators and the distribution of resources, the effects of these two environmental conditions have never been quantified simultaneously in a single spatial model. Here, in a novel approach, predator-specific landscapes of fear are constructed on the(More)
Sundaland, a tropical hotspot of biodiversity comprising Borneo and Sumatra among other islands, the Malay Peninsula, and a shallow sea, has been subject to dramatic environmental processes. Thus, it presents an ideal opportunity to investigate the role of environmental mechanisms in shaping species distribution and diversity. We investigated the population(More)
Life history data from wild primate populations are necessary to explain variation in primate social systems and explain differences between primates and other mammals. Here we report life history data from a 12.5-year study on wild Thomas langurs. Mean age at first reproduction was 5.4 years and the sex ratio at birth was even. The mean interbirth interval(More)
In most mammals, females pay for reproduction by dramatically increasing net energy intake from conception to mid- or late lactation. To do this, they time their reproductive events in relation to environmental cycles so that periods of peak food availability coincide with peak demand or are used to build energy stores. This timing is not possible in(More)
The Southeast Asian Sunda archipelago harbors a rich biodiversity with a substantial proportion of endemic species. The evolutionary history of these species has been drastically influenced by environmental forces, such as fluctuating sea levels, climatic changes, and severe volcanic activities. Orangutans (genus: Pongo), the only Asian great apes, are well(More)
The unexpected discovery that somatic cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state yielding induced pluripotent stem cells has made it possible to produce cardiovascular cells exhibiting inherited traits and disorders. Use of these cells in high throughput analyses should broaden our insight into fundamental disease mechanisms and provide many benefits(More)
Insulin-producing cells derived from embryonic stem cells could be surrogates for beta cells in diabetes therapy. However, their derivation remains hard to achieve with current protocols which rely on initial embryoid body formation. We assume that factors known to inhibit pancreas development contribute to this limitation in vitro. To evaluate this(More)
Although geographic variation in an organism's traits is often seen as a consequence of selection on locally adaptive genotypes accompanied by canalized development [1], developmental plasticity may also play a role [2, 3], especially in behavior [4]. Behavioral plasticity includes both individual learning and social learning of local innovations(More)
Group-living animals often do not maintain territories, but instead have highly overlapping ranges, even though in principle these are economically defendable. We investigate whether this absence of range defence reflects a collective action problem, since a territory can be considered a public good. In a comparative analysis comprising 135 primate species,(More)
Ecological factors have been shown to be important for brain size evolution. In this comparative study among catarrhine primates, we examine two different ways in which seasonality may be related to brain size. First, seasonality may impose energetic constraints on the brain because it forces animals to deal with periods of food scarcity (Expensive Brain(More)