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Comprising more than 61,000 servers located across nearly 1,000 networks in 70 countries worldwide, the Akamai platform delivers hundreds of billions of Internet interactions daily, helping thousands of enterprises boost the performance and reliability of their Internet applications. In this paper, we give an overview of the components and capabilities of(More)
—A capsule-based active network transports capsules containing code to be executed on network nodes through which they pass. Active networks facilitate the deployment of new protocols, which can be used without any changes to the underlying network infrastructure. This paper describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a high-performance active(More)
A first-generation oral inactivated whole-cell enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine, comprising formalin-killed ETEC bacteria expressing different colonization factor (CF) antigens combined with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), when tested in phase III studies did not significantly reduce overall (generally mild) ETEC diarrhea in travelers or(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) express a functional NADPH oxidase and produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon interaction with microbes and T cells. Exposure to ROS leads to DC activation and maturation, as evidenced by phenotypic and functional changes. We have evaluated how endogenous ROS production affects the cytokine secretion pattern and T cell-activating(More)
Protocols are described for the induction of strong, consistent serum and mucosal antibody responses to Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following intranasal or oral immunization of adult mice with viable or formalin-killed bacteria. A simplified two-dose schedule for intranasal immunization has been identified, whereby viable bacteria(More)
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrheal disease and deaths among children in developing countries and the major cause of traveller's diarrhea. Since surface protein colonization factors (CFs) of ETEC are important for pathogenicity and immune protection is mainly mediated by locally produced IgA antibodies in the gut, much(More)
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause secretory diarrhea in children and travelers to endemic areas. ETEC spreads through the fecal-oral route. After ingestion, ETEC passes through the stomach and duodenum before it colonizes the lower part of the small intestine, exposing bacteria to a wide range of pH and environmental conditions. This study aimed(More)
We have identified a synthetic peptide derived from the secreted portion of HSV type 2 glycoprotein G, denoted gG-2p20, which has proinflammatory properties in vitro. The gG-2p20 peptide, corresponding to aa 190-205 of glycoprotein G-2, was a chemoattractant for both monocytes and neutrophils in a dose-dependent fashion, and also induced the release of(More)
We describe here a new animal model that offers the prospect of using conventional adult mice for direct evaluation of the protective potential of new cholera vaccines. Pretreatment of adult mice with oral streptomycin allowed intestinal colonization by streptomycin-resistant Vibrio cholerae strains of either the O1 or the O139 serogroup. Bacteria were(More)