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Disruption of the Wnt pathway is thought to be crucial in the development of human cancer. Pathway inhibitory members of the secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) family were found to be downregulated due to epigenetic inactivation in various malignancies. To date, only SFRP1 has been studied in human breast cancer and we questioned whether other SFRP(More)
BACKGROUND We have previously reported that expression of the Wnt antagonist genes SFRP1 and SFRP5 is frequently silenced by promoter hypermethylation in breast cancer. SFRP2 is a further Wnt inhibitor whose expression was recently found being downregulated in various malignancies. Here we investigated whether SFRP2 is also implicated in human breast(More)
BACKGROUND Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine and mediator of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. MIF is overexpressed in various tumours and has been suggested as a molecular link between chronic inflammation and cancer. MIF overexpression is observed in breast cancer but its causal role in the development of this(More)
INTRODUCTION ISG15 is an ubiquitin-like molecule that is strongly upregulated by type I interferons as a primary response to diverse microbial and cellular stress stimuli. However, alterations in the ISG15 signalling pathway have also been found in several human tumour entities. To the best of our knowledge, in the current study we present for the first(More)
BACKGROUND Inhibitor of DNA binding/Inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4) is a critical factor for cell proliferation and differentiation in normal vertebrate development. ID4 has regulative functions for differentiation and growth of the developing brain. The role of ID1, ID2 and ID3 are expected to be oncogenic due to their overexpression in pancreatic(More)
Synemin (SYNM) is a type IV intermediate filament that has recently been shown to interact with the LIM domain protein zyxin, thereby possibly modulating cell adhesion and cell motility. Owing to this multiplicity of potential functions relevant to cancer development, we initiated a study to decipher SYNM expression and regulation in benign human breast(More)
Tumorigenesis and tumor progression are associated with dysfunction of the nuclear transport machinery at the level of import and export receptors (karyopherins). Recent studies have shown that the nuclear import factor karyopherin-α2 (KPNA2) is a novel prognostic marker for poor prognosis in human breast cancer. Based on the well-defined hallmarks of(More)
The aim of this study was to unravel the role of the transcription factor inhibitor of DNA binding 4 (ID4) in human breast carcinogenesis in more detail, especially the impact of ID4 promoter methylation on disease progression. Demethylating treatment of breast cancer cell lines was associated with ID4 reexpression. ID4 promoter methylation was frequently(More)
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) overexpression is an important prognostic and predictive biomarker in human breast cancer. SERBP1, a protein that is supposed to regulate the stability of PAI-1 mRNA, may play a role in gynaecological cancers as well, since upregulation of SERBP1 was described in ovarian cancer recently. This is the first study to(More)
Secreted frizzled related protein 3 (SFRP3) contains a cysteine-rich domain (CRD) that shares homology with Frizzled CRD and regulates WNT signaling. Independent studies showed epigenetic silencing of SFRP3 in melanoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, a tumor suppressive function of SFRP3 was shown in androgen-independent prostate and gastric cancer(More)