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Small GTP-binding proteins regulate diverse processes in eukaryotic cells such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, and intracellular membrane trafficking. These proteins function as molecular switches that cycle between "active" and "inactive" states, and this cycle is linked to the binding and hydrolysis of GTP. The(More)
In plants, auxin is a key regulator of development and is unique among plant hormones in that its function requires polarized transport between neighboring cells to form concentration gradients across various plant tissues. Although putative auxin-influx and -efflux transporters have been identified by using molecular genetic approaches, a detailed(More)
Spatial and temporal control of cell wall deposition plays a unique and critical role during growth and development in plants. To characterize membrane trafficking pathways involved in these processes, we have examined the function of a plant Rab GTPase, RabA4b, during polarized expansion in developing root hair cells. Whereas a small fraction of RabA4b(More)
Lateral roots originate deep within the parental root from a small number of founder cells at the periphery of vascular tissues and must emerge through intervening layers of tissues. We describe how the hormone auxin, which originates from the developing lateral root, acts as a local inductive signal which re-programmes adjacent cells. Auxin induces the(More)
In yeast and mammals, the AAA ATPase Vps4p/SKD1 (for Vacuolar protein sorting 4/SUPPRESSOR OF K(+) TRANSPORT GROWTH DEFECT1) is required for the endosomal sorting of secretory and endocytic cargo. We identified a VPS4/SKD1 homolog in Arabidopsis thaliana, which localizes to the cytoplasm and to multivesicular endosomes. In addition, green fluorescent(More)
The trans Golgi network (TGN) of plant cells sorts and packages Golgi products into secretory (SV) and clathrin-coated (CCV) vesicles. We have analyzed of TGN cisternae in Arabidopsis root meristem cells by cell fractionation and electron microscopy/tomography to establish reliable criteria for identifying TGN cisternae in plant cells, and to define their(More)
During reproduction in flowering plants, pollen grains form a tube that grows in a polarized fashion through the female tissues to eventually fertilize the egg cell. These highly polarized pollen tubes have a rapid rate of growth that is supported by a tip-focused delivery of membrane and cell wall components. To gain a better understanding of how this(More)
The RabA4b GTPase labels a novel, trans-Golgi network compartment displaying a developmentally regulated polar distribution in growing Arabidopsis thaliana root hair cells. GTP bound RabA4b selectively recruits the plant phosphatidylinositol 4-OH kinase, PI-4Kbeta1, but not members of other PI-4K families. PI-4Kbeta1 colocalizes with RabA4b on tip-localized(More)
While highly conserved in structure and in fundamental regulatory aspects for their activities, the RAS superfamily of monomeric GTP-binding proteins, or small GTPases, comprise a large family of regulatory molecules that collectively regulate diverse and critical cellular processes in eukaryotes. The RAB and ARF GTPases are members of two of the(More)
The dynamic activity of tip-localized filamentous actin (F-actin) in pollen tubes is controlled by counteracting RIC4 and RIC3 pathways downstream of the ROP1 guanosine triphosphatase promoting actin assembly and disassembly, respectively. We show here that ROP1 activation is required for both the polar accumulation and the exocytosis of vesicles at the(More)