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Small GTP-binding proteins regulate diverse processes in eukaryotic cells such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, and intracellular membrane trafficking. These proteins function as molecular switches that cycle between "active" and "inactive" states, and this cycle is linked to the binding and hydrolysis of GTP. The(More)
Two endosome populations involved in recycling of membranes and receptors to the plasma membrane have been described, the early and the recycling endosome. However, this distinction is mainly based on the flow of cargo molecules and the spatial distribution of these membranes within the cell. To get insights into the membrane organization of the recycling(More)
Spatial and temporal control of cell wall deposition plays a unique and critical role during growth and development in plants. To characterize membrane trafficking pathways involved in these processes, we have examined the function of a plant Rab GTPase, RabA4b, during polarized expansion in developing root hair cells. Whereas a small fraction of RabA4b(More)
Lateral roots originate deep within the parental root from a small number of founder cells at the periphery of vascular tissues and must emerge through intervening layers of tissues. We describe how the hormone auxin, which originates from the developing lateral root, acts as a local inductive signal which re-programmes adjacent cells. Auxin induces the(More)
Transport of cytoplasmically synthesized proteins into chloroplasts uses an import machinery present in the envelope membranes. To identify the components of this machinery and to begin to examine how these components interact during transport, chemical cross-linking was performed on intact chloroplasts containing precursor proteins trapped at a particular(More)
In yeast and mammals, the AAA ATPase Vps4p/SKD1 (for Vacuolar protein sorting 4/SUPPRESSOR OF K(+) TRANSPORT GROWTH DEFECT1) is required for the endosomal sorting of secretory and endocytic cargo. We identified a VPS4/SKD1 homolog in Arabidopsis thaliana, which localizes to the cytoplasm and to multivesicular endosomes. In addition, green fluorescent(More)
In plants, auxin is a key regulator of development and is unique among plant hormones in that its function requires polarized transport between neighboring cells to form concentration gradients across various plant tissues. Although putative auxin-influx and -efflux transporters have been identified by using molecular genetic approaches, a detailed(More)
The small GTPase Rab5 regulates membrane docking and fusion in the early endocytic pathway. Here we reveal a new role for Rab5 in the regulation of endosome interactions with the microtubule network. Using Rab5 fused to green fluorescent protein we show that Rab5-positive endosomes move on microtubules in vivo. In vitro, Rab5 stimulates both association of(More)
During reproduction in flowering plants, pollen grains form a tube that grows in a polarized fashion through the female tissues to eventually fertilize the egg cell. These highly polarized pollen tubes have a rapid rate of growth that is supported by a tip-focused delivery of membrane and cell wall components. To gain a better understanding of how this(More)
Auxin transport, which is mediated by specialized influx and efflux carriers, plays a major role in many aspects of plant growth and development. AUXIN1 (AUX1) has been demonstrated to encode a high-affinity auxin influx carrier. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AUX1 belongs to a small multigene family comprising four highly conserved genes (i.e., AUX1 and LIKE(More)