Erik N. T. P. Bakker

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Measurements of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) provide useful information about cerebrovascular condition and regional metabolism. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) is a promising non-invasive MRI technique to quantitatively measure the CBF, whereas additional hypercapnic pCASL measurements are currently(More)
Remodeling of small arteries is essential in the long-term regulation of blood pressure and blood flow to specific organs or tissues. A large part of the change in vessel diameter may occur through non-growth-related reorganization of vessel wall components. The hypothesis was tested that tissue-type transglutaminase (tTG), a cross-linking enzyme,(More)
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a pleiotropic enzyme involved in both intra- and extracellular processes. In the extracellular matrix, TG2 stabilizes the matrix by both covalent cross-linking and disulfide isomerase activity. These functions become especially apparent during matrix remodeling as seen in wound healing, tumor development and vascular remodeling.(More)
In the absence of a true lymphatic system in the brain parenchyma, alternative clearance pathways for excess fluid and waste products have been proposed. Suggested mechanisms for clearance implicate a role for brain interstitial and cerebrospinal fluids. However, the proposed direction of flow, the anatomical structures involved, and the driving forces are(More)
The lymphatic clearance pathways of the brain are different compared to the other organs of the body and have been the subject of heated debates. Drainage of brain extracellular fluids, particularly interstitial fluid (ISF) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is not only important for volume regulation, but also for removal of waste products such as amyloid beta(More)
During normal brain development, axons are myelinated by mature oligodendrocytes (OLGs). Under pathological, demyelinating conditions within the central nervous system (CNS), axonal remyelination is only partially successful because oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) largely remain in an undifferentiated state resulting in a failure to generate(More)
The passage of leukocytes across the endothelium and into arterial walls is a critical step in the development of atherosclerosis. Previously, we showed in vitro that the RhoG guanine nucleotide exchange factor SGEF (Arhgef26) contributes to the formation of ICAM-1-induced endothelial docking structures that facilitate leukocyte transendothelial migration.(More)
OBJECTIVES Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have been used frequently as a model for human essential hypertension. However, both the SHR and its normotensive control, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY), consist of genetically different sublines. We tested the hypothesis that the pathophysiology of vascular remodeling in hypertension differs among rat sublines.(More)
While inward remodeling of small arteries in response to low blood flow, hypertension, and chronic vasoconstriction depends on type 2 transglutaminase (TG2), the mechanisms of action have remained unresolved. We studied the regulation of TG2 activity, its (sub) cellular localization, substrates, and its specific mode of action during small artery inward(More)