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Mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) are abundantly expressed in the limbic brain and mediate cortisol effects on the stress-response and behavioral adaptation. Dysregulation of the stress response impairs adaptation and is a risk factor for depression, which is twice as abundant in women than in men. Because of the importance of MR for(More)
BACKGROUND Major depression is known to be related to higher cardiovascular mortality. However, epidemiological data regarding dispositional optimism in relation to mortality are scanty. OBJECTIVE To test whether subjects who are optimistic live longer than those who are pessimistic. DESIGN Our analysis formed part of a prospective population-based(More)
The female predominance in several autoimmune diseases suggests a role for sex steroid hormones in disease susceptibility. We therefore investigated to what extent sex hormones would influence immune responsiveness. We analyzed T helper type 1 (TH1) and type 2 cytokine patterns, chemokine receptor expression (n = 2 x 10), and Ig levels (n = 2 x 25) in(More)
BACKGROUND Childhood trauma is linked to adult depression and might be a risk factor for a more chronic course of depression. However, the link between childhood trauma and chronicity of depression has not been investigated using a large and representative sample in which other depression characteristics, such as severity, age at onset, and comorbid(More)
Routine outcome monitoring (ROM) is a method devised to systematically collect data on the effectiveness of treatments in everyday clinical practice. ROM involves documenting the outcome of treatments through repeated assessments. Assistants are employed who perform a baseline assessment comprising a standardized diagnostic interview, administration of(More)
BACKGROUND Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis dysregulation has inconsistently been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Yet, trauma exposure rather than PTSD may be responsible for HPA-axis dysregulation. In two meta-analyses, we assessed the association of adulthood trauma exposure and HPA-axis functioning in healthy subjects with(More)
BACKGROUND During pregnancy there is a high demand for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is needed for formation of the fetal brain. Women who do not consume marine foods must synthesize DHA from fatty acid precursors in vegetable foods. OBJECTIVE We studied sex differences in DHA status and the role of sex hormones. DESIGN First, DHA status was(More)
Scarce evidence suggests that inflammatory and metabolic dysregulation predicts poor response to antidepressants, which could result in worse depression outcome. This study prospectively examined whether inflammatory and metabolic dysregulation predicted the 2-year course of depressive disorders among antidepressant users. Data were from the Netherlands(More)
The original Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) is a 90-item self-report, designed to measure the dimensions of Clark and Watson's tripartite model. We developed and validated a 30-item short adaptation of the MASQ: the MASQ-D30, which is more suitable for large-scale psychopathology research and has a clearer factor structure. The MASQ-D30 was(More)
OBJECTIVE We carried out a secondary analysis in high-risk patients with a previous myocardial infarction (MI) and diabetes in the Alpha Omega Trial. We tested the hypothesis that in these patients an increased intake of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA) will reduce the incidence of(More)