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Schizophrenia is a complex disorder, caused by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Research on pathogenesis has traditionally focused on neurotransmitter systems in the brain, particularly those involving dopamine. Schizophrenia has been considered a separate disease for over a century, but in the absence of clear biological(More)
Morphological abnormalities of the cerebral cortex have been reported in a number of MRI-studies in schizophrenia. Uncertainty remains regarding cause, mechanism and progression of the alterations. It has been suggested that antipsychotic medication reduces total gray matter volumes, but results are inconsistent. In the present study differences in regional(More)
The prevalence of dementia in the Western world in people over the age of 60 has been estimated to be greater than 5%, about two-thirds of which are due to Alzheimer's disease. The age-specific prevalence of Alzheimer's disease nearly doubles every 5 years after age 65, leading to a prevalence of greater than 25% in those over the age of 90 (ref. 3). Here,(More)
The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging(More)
BACKGROUND Smaller hippocampal volume has repeatedly been reported in schizophrenia patients. Obstetric complications (OCs) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation in schizophrenia susceptibility genes have independently been related to hippocampal volume. We investigated putative independent and interaction effects of severe hypoxia-related OCs(More)
The density of striatal dopamine D2 receptors has been shown to vary considerably among healthy subjects. This variability might be due to genetic or environmental factors. In the present analysis we searched for relationships between dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) polymorphisms and striatal dopamine D2 receptor density in vivo, as measured by positron(More)
Polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene have been suggested to be associated with schizophrenia. In a replication attempt, Swedish patients with schizophrenia (n=187) and control subjects (n=275) were assessed for four BDNF gene polymorphisms. There were no significantly different allele, genotype or haplotype frequencies between(More)
The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions,(More)