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Schizophrenia is a complex disorder, caused by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Research on pathogenesis has traditionally focused on neurotransmitter systems in the brain, particularly those involving dopamine. Schizophrenia has been considered a separate disease for over a century, but in the absence of clear biological(More)
Morphological abnormalities of the cerebral cortex have been reported in a number of MRI-studies in schizophrenia. Uncertainty remains regarding cause, mechanism and progression of the alterations. It has been suggested that antipsychotic medication reduces total gray matter volumes, but results are inconsistent. In the present study differences in regional(More)
Concentrations of monoamine metabolites (MM) in lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been used extensively as indirect estimates of monoamine turnover in the brain. We investigated the possible relationships between DNA polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter (DAT), serotonin transporter (SERT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET) genes and CSF(More)
The density of striatal dopamine D2 receptors has been shown to vary considerably among healthy subjects. This variability might be due to genetic or environmental factors. In the present analysis we searched for relationships between dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) polymorphisms and striatal dopamine D2 receptor density in vivo, as measured by positron(More)
We have investigated the gene for dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1), or dysbindin, which has been strongly suggested as a positional candidate gene for schizophrenia, in three samples of subjects with schizophrenia and unaffected control subjects of German (418 cases, 285 controls), Polish (294 cases, 113 controls), and Swedish (142 cases, 272(More)
The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging(More)
The prevalence of dementia in the Western world in people over the age of 60 has been estimated to be greater than 5%, about two-thirds of which are due to Alzheimer's disease. The age-specific prevalence of Alzheimer's disease nearly doubles every 5 years after age 65, leading to a prevalence of greater than 25% in those over the age of 90 (ref. 3). Here,(More)
The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions,(More)
A trio of genome-wide association studies recently reported sequence variants at three loci to be significantly associated with schizophrenia. No sequence polymorphism had been unequivocally (P<5 × 10(-8)) associated with schizophrenia earlier. However, one variant, rs1344706[T], had come very close. This polymorphism, located in an intron of ZNF804A, was(More)