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The widespread use of antibiotics is selecting for a variety of resistance mechanisms that seriously challenge our ability to treat bacterial infections. Resistant bacteria can be selected at the high concentrations of antibiotics used therapeutically, but what role the much lower antibiotic concentrations present in many environments plays in selection(More)
How sublethal levels of antibiotics and heavy metals select for clinically important multidrug resistance plasmids is largely unknown. Carriage of plasmids generally confers substantial fitness costs, implying that for the plasmid-carrying bacteria to be maintained in the population, the plasmid cost needs to be balanced by a selective pressure conferred(More)
The effects of postnatal caffeine exposure received through mother's milk were examined in rat pups by administering 0.0125 or 0.05% caffeine solution to the dams throughout lactation. Offspring of caffeine-treated dams showed significantly earlier onset of auditory startle and air righting reflexes. No direct effects of treatment were observed on eight(More)
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