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The classic muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist carbamoylcholine (carbachol) does not seem to be the most obvious lead for the development of selective ligands at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In the past, however, N-methylations of carbachol have provided N-methylcarbamoylcholine and N,N-dimethylcarbamoylcholine (DMCC), which(More)
In a recent study, EF1502 [N-[4,4-bis(3-methyl-2-thienyl)-3-butenyl]-3-hydroxy-4-(methylamino)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo [d]isoxazol-3-ol], which is an N-substituted analog of the GAT1-selective GABA uptake inhibitor exo-THPO (4-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]isoxazol-3-ol), was found to inhibit GABA transport mediated by both GAT1 and GAT2 in human(More)
A series of lipophilic diaromatic derivatives of the glia-selective GABA uptake inhibitor (R)-4-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]isoxazol-3-ol [(R)-exo-THPO, 4] were synthesized via reductive amination of 3-ethoxy-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]isoxazol-4-one (9) or via N-alkylation of O-alkylatedracemic 4. The effects of the target compounds on GABA uptake(More)
We have previously defined the concept of functional partial agonism as the partial agonist responses recorded in brain slices after administration of full ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists and competitive antagonists at fixed ratios. Functional partial agonism can be established at any level of maximal response, depending on the molar ratio of agonist(More)
3-Isoxazolols substituted in the 5-position by pyrrolidinyl or piperidyl (referred to, respectively, as PYOLs and PIOLs; see Figure 2 for structures) were designed and synthesized as analogues of the potent and specific GABAA agonist THIP. Activity in the series was markedly dependent upon positional isomerism in the structures. Isomers in which the(More)
The inhibitory action of bicyclic isoxazole gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogues and their 4,4-diphenyl-3-butenyl (DPB) substituted derivatives has been investigated in cortical neurones and astrocytes as well as in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells transiently expressing either mouse GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1), GAT-2, -3 or -4. It was found that(More)
The N-4,4-diphenyl-3-butenyl derivative of the glial selective gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake inhibitor 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo [4,5-c]pyridin-3-ol (N-DPB-THPO), was tested for its ability to block sound-induced seizures in the audiogenic seizure-susceptible Frings mouse model of epilepsy. Following intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.)(More)
The effects of N-(4,4-diphenyl-3-butenyl) derivatives of nipecotic acid (SKF-89976-A and SKF-100844-A) and guvacine (SKF-100330-A) on neuronal and astroglial gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake were investigated. In addition, the uptake of SKF-89976-A was studied using the tritiated compound. All of the compounds were found to be competitive inhibitors of(More)
The affinities of a number of analogues of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) for GABAA and GABAB receptor sites and GABA uptake were studied using rat brain membrane preparations. Studies on the (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-isomers of baclofen, 3-hydroxy-4-aminobutyric acid (3-OH-GABA), and 4,5-dihydromuscimol (DHM) revealed different stereoselectivities of these(More)
(RS)-5-(Aminomethyl)-2-isoxazolin-3-ol (dihydromuscimol, DHM) is a potent 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist, the inhibitory effects of which on neurons are sensitive to the antagonist bicuculline methochloride (BMC), and it also interacts with the GABA uptake system in vitro. (S)-(+)-DHM (4) and (R)-(-)-DHM (5) were obtained in optically pure forms via(More)