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Preventing initiation of tobacco product use, promoting cessation of tobacco use, and protecting the public from exposure to second hand smoke are recognised by the World Health organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and by the WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg) as the most effective approaches to reducing(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide a hazard prioritisation for reported chemical constituents of cigarette smoke using toxicological risk assessment principles and assumptions. The purpose is to inform prevention efforts using harm reduction. DATA SOURCES International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs; California and US Environmental Protection Agency cancer(More)
§ The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of their employers. 1. Executive summary This report presents a review of risk characterisation, the final step in risk assessment of exposures to food chemicals. The report is the second publication of the project ''Food Safety in Europe: Risk Assessment(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies have demonstrated an association between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Inflammation seems to play an important role in the observed health effects. However, the predominant particle component(s) that drives the inflammation is still not fully clarified. In this study(More)
In vitro metabolism and metabolic activation of 2-acetylami-nofluorene (AAF), 2-aminofluorene, and 2,4-diaminoanisole to mutagenic (Salmonella test system) and covalently protein-bound intermediates were evaluated in subcellular fractions from seven human livers. The cytochrome P-450 content, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity, and sodium dodecyl(More)
The metabolism of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) as well as the activation of AAF to covalently bound and mutagenic intermediates were studied in isolated rat hepatocytes. The cell system readily formed oxidized, deacetylated, and conjugated AAF metabolites. Pretreatments of animals with the inducer beta-naphthoflavone led to increases in phenolic and(More)
The rabbit pulmonary and hepatic microsomal pathways for the metabolism of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) and 2-aminofluorene (AF) to mutagenic products were investigated by means of high performance liquid chromatography and the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activity approached a maximum with increasing concentrations of AAF incubated with hepatic(More)
The nicotine in tobacco products is strongly addictive. This was generally recognised no earlier than in the late 1970s, though it was well known within the international tobacco industry in the early 1960s. Nicotine acts as an addictive substance by binding to acetylcholine receptors and causing the release of dopamine in the brain, though other signalling(More)
The amount of scientific findings linking air pollution with adverse health effects is continuously growing and indicates a need for action to improve air quality. On 21 September 2005, the European Commission published a new draft directive on air quality, as part of the Thematic Strategy on air pollution. This is a long-term plan on how to reduce air(More)
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