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Fullerenes such as C(60) show promise as functional components in several emerging technologies. For biomedical applications, C(60) has been used in gene- and drug-delivery vectors, as imaging agents, and as photosensitizers in cancer therapy. A major drawback of C(60) for bioapplications is its insolubility in water. To overcome this limitation, we(More)
Titanium has been a successful implant material owing to its excellent strength to weight ratio, toughness, and bioinert oxide surface. Significant progress has been made on the improvement of titanium's bioactivity by coating its oxide surface with calcium phosphates and bioactive molecules. Here, we report on the coating of titanium with a(More)
Bone is one of Nature's most remarkable materials, not only for its mechanical properties but also for its ability to repair fractures and remodel its microstructure in response to stress. At the nanoscale bone is a supramolecular matrix of collagen fibers reinforced by hydroxyapatite crystals with a high degree of order. Emulating elements of the(More)
While titanium has been clinically successful as an orthopedic or dental implant material, performance problems still persist related to implant-bone interfacial strength and mechanical modulus mismatch between titanium and tissue. We describe here the preparation of a titanium foam as a better mechanical match to tissue with surfaces attractive to bone(More)
Microtubules (MTs) and the MT-associated proteins (MAPs) are critical cooperative agents involved in complex nanoassembly processes in biological systems. These biological materials and processes serve as important inspiration in developing new strategies for the assembly of synthetic nanomaterials in emerging techologies. Here, we explore a dynamic(More)
Nanopore size, shape, and surface charge all play important roles in regulating ionic transport through nanoporous membranes. The ability to control these parameters in situ provides a means to create ion transport systems tunable in real time. Here, we present a new strategy to address this challenge, utilizing three unique electrochemically switchable(More)
Porous titanium with elongated and aligned pores, mimicking the anisotropic structure of bone, was created by solid-state expansion of argon trapped in elongated pores between titanium wires. Both elastic moduli and yield strengths are larger in the longitudinal direction (E = 51 GPa, sigma y = 338 MPa) than in the transverse direction (E = 41 GPa, sigma y(More)
Recently we discovered that under certain conditions new crystal growth (branch) can be induced on specific crystalline planes of the same material. This is a new phenomenon and is in sharp contrast to typical nucleation and growth in which a crystal will simply grow larger in preferred directions depending on the surface energy of the specific crystalline(More)
Titanium (Ti) and its alloys continue to serve as successful implant materials for skeletal repair because of their physical properties and biocompatibility. This study investigates the influence of organoapatite (OA), grown directly onto an L-shaped Ti mesh, on preosteoblastic cellular colonization. Unseeded mesh samples were placed on subconfluent layers(More)