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In this paper a synthesis algorithm for reversible ternary logic cascades is presented. The algorithm can find a solution for any reversible ternary function with n inputs and n outputs utilizing ternary inverter gates and the new (quantum realizable) UCTG gates which are a powerful generalization of ternary Toffoli gates and Generalized Ternary Gates [4].(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the literature of spinal cord injury and stem cell therapy for large animal models and incorporate those results into an understanding of stem cell therapy for human cord injury. METHODS Review of the literature. RESULTS Eleven canine studies were identified and 3 sub-human primate studies were identified showing variable results. (More)
OBJECTIVE Normative data exists for stimulus-evoked pedicle screw electromyography (EMG) current thresholds in the lumbar spine, and is routinely referenced during spine surgeries to detect a screw breach, prevent injury of neural elements, and ensure the most biomechanically sound instrumentation construct. To date, similar normative data for cervical(More)
Effective in vivo use of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors to achieve gene-specific silencing or upregulation in the central nervous system has been limited by the inability to provide more than limited deep parenchymal expression in adult animals using delivery routes with the most clinical relevance (intravenous or intrathecal). Here, we(More)
INTRODUCTION Spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting in paraplegia or quadriplegia is a significant burden in the world. It is estimated that there are approximately 250 000 people living with SCI in the United States alone. Our study offered the direct implantation of human-derived stem cells into the spinal cord of subjects who have chronic SCI. The primary(More)
BACKGROUND Laminectomy plus excision of spinal neoplasms is commonly performed. The current study examines risk profiles associated with elective laminectomies of benign, malignant primary, and secondary/metastatic neoplasms of the thoracic spine. METHODS Adult patients undergoing elective thoracic laminectomy and excision of spinal neoplasm were(More)
INTRODUCTION We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of early outcomes after elective anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) vs cervical artificial disc replacement (C-ADR) using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Risk factors associated with operation time, hospital length of stay, early complications, and discharge(More)
Traumatic retrolisthesis of the lumbar spine is a rare clinical entity. Only a few case reports have shown retrolisthesis of the fractured fragment over the inferior vertebral body. Fracture dislocations of the spine are unstable injuries that require operative fixation to restore alignment and prevent progressive deformity. We present the case of a(More)
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